Pharmacy World & Science

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 637–642 | Cite as

Training Australian pharmacists for participation in a collaborative, home-based post-discharge warfarin management service

  • Leanne StaffordEmail author
  • Gregory M. Peterson
  • Luke R. Bereznicki
  • Shane L. Jackson
  • Ella C. van Tienen
Research Article


Objective To describe the development, implementation and outcomes of an anticoagulation education program for pharmacists participating in a community-based post-discharge warfarin management service. Setting Australian community pharmacy practice. Method Three education modules were developed in collaboration with medical experts and delivered electronically and via hands-on training sessions to pharmacists in three Australian states. Educational outcomes were assessed via a short answer assignment and evaluation of their warfarin dosing recommendations for five hypothetical scenarios. Consumer and pharmacist perceptions of the adequacy of the training were surveyed using a structured postal questionnaire. Main outcome measure Pharmacists’ score in the short answer assignment and evaluation of their responses to the hypothetical warfarin dosing scenarios. Results Sixty-two pharmacists successfully completed the training program with a mean score for the short answer assignment of 14.3 out of 15 (95.3%; 95% CI 13.8–14.7). The pharmacists’ warfarin management recommendations were very similar to those of two experienced medical specialists. Pharmacists and consumers expressed confidence in the adequacy of the training program. Conclusion This education program successfully up-skilled a cohort of pharmacists for involvement in a post-discharge warfarin management service. These findings support formalisation and further development of the program to facilitate widespread implementation of home-based post-discharge warfarin care.


Australia Continuing pharmacy education Home care services International normalised ratio Pharmacist Warfarin 



The authors would like to acknowledge: Professor David Fitzmaurice and Dr Ellen Murray from the University of Birmingham for their assistance in the formulation of the initial training program; Roche Diagnostics Australia, the National Institute of Clinical Studies (NICS), and the AACP for their support; and Dr David Jupe, Dr Ellen Maxwell and Associate Professor Janet Vial for their assistance in the preparation of the dosage adjustment scenarios. This project was funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing as part of the Fourth Community Pharmacy Agreement through the Fourth Community Pharmacy Agreement Grants Program managed by the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The authors would also like to acknowledge the National Safety and Quality Council for providing the funding for the initial development of the training program.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leanne Stafford
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gregory M. Peterson
    • 1
  • Luke R. Bereznicki
    • 1
  • Shane L. Jackson
    • 1
  • Ella C. van Tienen
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit for Medication Outcomes Research and Education (UMORE), School of PharmacyUniversity of TasmaniaHobartTasmania

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