Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 389–402 | Cite as

Enhanced Oral Delivery of Curcumin from N-trimethyl Chitosan Surface-Modified Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Pharmacokinetic and Brain Distribution Evaluations

  • Prakash Ramalingam
  • Young Tag Ko
Research Paper



Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been proposed as a colloidal carrier system that could enhance the oral bioavailability of curcumin. However, a burst release of the loaded drug, which occurs in acidic environments, has been a main obstacle to the oral delivery of curcumin by using SLNs as a carrier system. We hypothesized that a quarternized chitosan derivative could be used for acid-resistant coating to stabilize the SLNs and circumvent the burst release.


N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) was synthesized and determined by 1H-NMR and FT-IR. To investigate the details of chitosan and TMC surface modification on SLCNs composed of palmitic acid, cholesterol, TPGS and curcumin, a number of factors such as optimized SLNs composition, solid state characterization, stability, cell viability, in vitro release in GI conditions, curcumin oral bioavailability and brain distribution studies, were evaluated.


The TMC-SLCNs exhibited prolonged stability in room and refrigerated conditions, controlled drug release in simulated intestinal fluid, significantly higher oral bioavailability, and brain distribution of curcumin than free curcumin, chitosan and non-coated SLCNs.


These finding suggests that the TMC-SLCNs is a promising nanocarrier system for oral delivery and brain distribution of curcumin.

Key words

coating curcumin N-trimethyl chitosan oral drug delivery solid lipid nanoparticles 



Chitosan coated solid lipid nanoparticles


Differential scanning calorimetry


Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy


Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy


High performance liquid chromatography


Liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectroscopy

MTT reagent

(3-[4, 5-dimethyl –thiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide)


Powder X-ray diffraction


Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles


Solid lipid nanoparticles


Thermogravimetric analysis


N-trimethyl chitosan


N-trimethyl chitosan coated solid lipid nanoparticles


d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1,000 succinate



This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program of Korean National Research Foundation (NRF-20110007794).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of PharmacyGachon UniversityIncheonSouth Korea

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