Diammine Dicarboxylic Acid Platinum Enhances Cytotoxicity in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells through Induction of Apoptosis and S-Phase Cell Arrest
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Polysaccharides such as chondroitin play a potent role in tumor growth, tissue repair and angiogenesis. These properties make chondroitin a good candidate for novel drug delivery systems. Diammine dicarboxylic acid platinum (DDAP), a novel polymeric platinum compound, was developed by conjugating the platinum analogue to aspartate–chondroitin for drug delivery to tumor cells. DDAP improves platinum solubility which may reduce systemic toxicity and be more efficacious than cisplatin in killing tumor cells.
We tested and compared the cytotoxic effects of DDAP and CDDP on the platinum-sensitive 2008 and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines and their platinum-resistant sublines 2008.C13 and A2780cis; we also investigated DDAP’s mechanism of action.
In the platinum-sensitive cell lines, the cytotoxic effects of DDAP and CDDP were comparable. However, in the platinum-resistant sublines, significantly greater cell-growth inhibition was induced by DDAP than by CDDP, especially at lower doses. DDAP also induced more apoptosis than CDDP did in the 2008.C13 subline, which was partially mediated by the caspase 3-dependent pathway. In addition, lower (but not higher) doses of DDAP arrested 90% of S-phase 2008.C13 cells, which might be associated with up-regulation of p21 and maintenance of low cyclin A expression. Furthermore, greater cellular uptake of DDAP was seen in platinum-resistant than in platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer cells.
Low-dose DDAP enhances drug delivery to platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells and substantially inhibits their growth by inducting apoptosis and arresting cells in the S-phase, suggesting that DDAP may overcome platinum resistance in ovarian cancer.
KEY WORDSCDDP CDDP analogue drug resistance ovarian cancer
We thank Tamara Locke in the Department of Scientific Publications at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center for editing this manuscript, as well as Ling Chen and Richard Mendez for their assistance with the experiments. This work was supported by M. D. Anderson’s institutional grant and Core Grant (NCI grant 5P30CA016672-32).
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