Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 51–55 | Cite as

Molecular-biological problems of drug design and mechanism of drug action

Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and analysis of morphine and tramadol
  • K. S. Zaikin
  • G. V. Ramenskaya
  • A. P. Arzamastsev

The non-medicinal use of narcotic analgesics such as morphine and tramadol, as well as the opiate substance heroin, whose main metabolites are 6-monoacetylmorphine and morphine, is currently widespread among drug addicts. Overdosage with and death resulting from these substances are common. They are also encountered in combination with other psychotropic agents [1, 2, 3, 4].

Drug addicts use these agents because of their effects. Morphine and tramadol produce analgesia and euphoria, the latter producing pleasant feelings and unmotivated states of freedom from anxiety and worries. Users feel comfortable and lose the sensations of hunger and thirst. These effects lead to therapeutic dependence, i.e., the uncontrollable desire to take repeated doses. This leads to the development of physical dependence, which is apparent as a withdrawal syndrome. At the same time, the pharmacological effects of these agents are widely utilized in a variety of surgical procedures [5, 6].

Data from the...


Morphine tramadol gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy blood pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Zaikin
    • 1
  • G. V. Ramenskaya
    • 1
  • A. P. Arzamastsev
    • 1
  1. 1.I. M. Sechenov Moscow Medical AcademyMoscowRussia

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