Most high voltage circuit breakers in operation use SF6 as the arc interruption medium because of its high dielectric strength and good arc interruption properties. However SF6 also displays a high global warming potential which motivates the investigation of possible alternatives such as CO2–Novec™4710 and N2–Novec™5110 mixtures proposed by different HVCB manufacturers. CB power test comparison between pure CO2 and CO2–Novec™4710 mixture shows that the latter created a large amount of graphite and reduced CB performances after several current breaking shots. Using Gibbs free energy method, a theoretical study has been conducted on SF6 replacement candidates listed above. Aiming to understand graphite formation, several parameters impact were discussed: carrier gas such as CO2 and N2, pressure and O2 initial mixture proportions. The study focuses on graphite condensation temperature and graphite production amount evolutions in respect to the study parameters as well as in respect to CB inter-contacts space condition in terms of pressure and temperature at current-zero. It has been shown that a high percentage of CO2 in the mixture reduces graphite condensation temperature by 2600 K while adding N2 do not make such an impact. Pressure increases graphite condensation temperature and O2 reduces it. The amount of graphite produced is pressure independent but decreases with the increase of O2 proportion in the initial mixture. It has been shown that adding a sufficient O2 amount can prevent graphite production at all.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Kieffel Y, Biquez F, Ponchon P, Irwin T (2015) SF6 alternative development for high voltage switchgears. In: IEEE electrical insulation conference (EIC). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICACACT.2014.7223577
Christophorou ELG, Olthoff JK (2004) Gaseous dielectrics IX. Plenum Publishers, New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0583-9. ISBN 978-1-4613-5143-6
Mantilla JD, Gariboldi N, Grob S, Claessens M (2014) Investigation of the insulation performance of a new gas mixture with extremely low GWP. In: Electrical insulation conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. https://doi.org/10.1109/EIC.2014.6869432
André P, Koalaga Z (2010) Composition of a thermal plasma formed from PTFE with copper in non-oxidant atmosphere. Part I: definition of a test case with the SF6. High Temp Mater Process 14(3):279. https://doi.org/10.1615/HighTempMatProc.v14.i3.70
Robin-Jouan P, Bousoltane K, Kieffel Y, Trepanier JY, Camarero R, Arabi S, Pernaudat G (2017) Analysis of last development results for high voltage circuit-breakers using new g3 gas. Plasma Phys Technol 4(2):157–160. https://doi.org/10.14311/ppt.2017.2.157
Diggmann T, Tehlar D, Chang J, Zache S (2016) AirPlus™ an alternative to SF6 as an insulation and switching medium in electrical switchgear. ABB review, pp 68–72. https://library.e.abb.com/public/999db4ab2cab46dabbf005db3c43bbd5/68-72%202m540_FR_72dpi.pdf. Accessed Nov 2019
Yang A, Liu Y, Sun B, Wang X, Cressault Y, Zhong L, Rong MZ, Wu Y, Niu C (2015) Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of high-temperature CO2 thermal plasmas, mixed with C2F4. J Phys D Appl Phys 48:495202. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/48/49/495202
Wang WZ, Wu Y, Rong MZ (2014) Influence of ablated PTFE vapor entrainment on critical dielectric strength of hot SF6 gas. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 21(4):1478–1485. https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2014.004362
Zhong L, Rong MZ, Wang X, Wu J, Han Guiquan, Han Guohui, Yanhui Lu, Yang Aijun, Wu Y (2017) Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential. AIP Adv 7:075003. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4993305
Wang WZ, Yan JD, Rong MZ, Murphy AB, Spencer JW (2013) Theoretical investigation of the decay of an SF6 gas-blast arc using a two-temperature hydrodynamic model. J Phys D Appl Phys 46:065203. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/46/6/065203
André P, Kohio N, Kagoné AK, Koalaga Z, Zougmoré F (2019) Contribution à l’étude de la conductivité thermique d’un plasma d’air. JITIPEE 5(2):3. https://doi.org/10.18145/jitipee.v5i2.222
André P, Lefort A (1998) The influence of thermal disequilibrium on a plasma consisting of insulator vapours. J Phys D Appl Phys 31:717–729. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/31/6/020
Annaloro J, Teulet P, Bultel A, Cressault Y, Gleizes A (2017) Non-uniqueness of the multi-temperature law of mass action. Application to 2T plasma composition calculation by means of a collisional-radiative model. Eur Phys J D 71:342. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2017-80284-5
Nichele S (2011) Modélisation Physique et Simulations Numériques des Ecoulements dans les Disjoncteurs Electriques Haute Tension. Ph.D. thesis from Université de Provence. http://www.theses.fr/2011AIX10110
Aubreton J, Elchinger MF, André P (2013) Influence of partition function and interaction potential on transport properties of thermal plasmas. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 33:367–399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-012-9427-3
JANAF (1998) Thermochemical tables, 4th edn. In: Chases MW (ed), Journal of physical and chemical reference data, vol 9
Boulos MI, Fauchais P, Pfender E (1994) Thermal plasmas. Plenum Press, New York
André P, Bussière W, Rochette D (2007) Transport coefficients of Ag–SiO2 plasmas. PCPP 27:381–403. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-007-9086-y
Murphy AB (2000) Transport coefficients of hydrogen and argon–hydrogen plasmas. PCPP. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1007099926249
Bendjebbar F, André P, Benbakkar M, Rochette D, Flazi S, Vacher D (2012) Plasma formed in argon, acid nitric and water used in industrial ICP torches. Plasma Sci Technol 14(8):683–692. https://doi.org/10.1088/1009-0630/14/8/01
Calvino BJ (1984) Single-pressure SF6 circuit breakers. In: Browne TE (ed), From the book “Circuit interruption. Theory and techniques”, New York, pp 377–424. ISBN: 0-8247-7177-X
Landau L, Lifchitz E (1984) Physique Statistique, vol 5, 3rd edn. Edition de Moscou/Éditions Mir (in French)
Preve C, Maladen R, Piccoz D (2016) Method for validation of new eco-friendly insulating gases for medium voltage equipment. In: IEEE international conference on dielectrics (ICD), no. 7547588, pp 235–240. https://doi.org/10.1109/icd.2016.7547588
André P (1997) The influence of graphite on the composition and thermodynamic properties of plasma formed in ablated vapour of PMMA, PA6-6, PETP, POM and PE used in circuit-breakers. J Phys D Appl Phys 30:475–493. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/30/3/022
This work was supported by a Grant of the French National Research Agency (ANR) as part of the “Investissement d’Avenir” Program (ANE-ITE-002-01).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
André-Maouhoub, E., André, P., Makhlouf, S. et al. Production of Graphite During the Extinguishing Arc with New SF6 Alternative Gases. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 40, 795–808 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-020-10078-y
- High voltage
- Circuit breakers