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Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 621–645 | Cite as

Plasma Bromination of Graphene for Covalent Bonding of Organic Molecules

  • Jörg F. Friedrich
  • Gundula Hidde
  • Andreas Lippitz
  • Wolfgang E. S. Unger
Original Paper

Abstract

Plasma-chemical bromination applied to graphitic materials, in particular to highly ordered pyrolytic graphite is reviewed. The resulting bromination efficiency of the plasma-chemical treatment was subject of systematic process optimization. The plasma of elemental bromine vapour produced bromine concentrations on graphene surfaces of more than 30 % Br/C using either inductively or capacitively coupled low-pressure radio-frequency plasmas. Plasma brominated graphite surfaces have been studied by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The introduction of bromine into graphene-like graphite layers and its binding situation were investigated. To study the physical effect of the plasma bromination process, Kr plasma was also used because of its chemical inertness but similar atomic mass. Covering the samples with a Faraday cage or with a LiF window should help to differentiate between physical, chemical and radiation effects of the plasma. Bromination was assigned to radical or electrophilic addition of bromine onto fully substituted aromatic double bonds (sp2 C) with exothermal reaction enthalpy. Low bromination shows a strong decay of aromatic double bonds, higher bromination percentage let disappear all aromatic rings. The formed C–Br bonds were well suited for efficient grafting of organic molecules by post-plasma wet-chemical nucleophilic substitution. This grafting onto the graphene surface was demonstrated using aminosilane and different diamines. The bromination of double bonds changes the hybridization of carbon atoms from plane sp2 to tetrahedral sp3 hybridization. Thus, the plane topography of graphene is destroyed and the conductivity is lost.

Keywords

Graphene Bromination Grafting of diamines Plasma 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. A. Hertwig for providing amorphous carbon layers and Mrs. S. Benemann for taking SEM pictures. Support by the team at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility and A. Nefedov (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT) from the HE-SGM Collaborate Research Group is acknowledged as well.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jörg F. Friedrich
    • 1
  • Gundula Hidde
    • 1
  • Andreas Lippitz
    • 1
  • Wolfgang E. S. Unger
    • 1
  1. 1.Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -PrüfungBerlinGermany

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