Systemically Exploring Student Debt: Methodological Challenges for Pastoral Theology
Moral stress arising from student debt is defined here as a psycho-spiritual stress response to the North American dream of achievement through individual hard work, which implicitly blames students for educational debt, exacerbating shame about aspects of their identity (their race, social class, gender, sexual orientation). A critical correlational method brings psychological research on moral stress, moral emotions, and religious struggles into dialogue with pastoral theologies of intersectionality and lived theologies of the North American dream in order to construct a compassion-based relational process of theological reflexivity fostering spiritually integrated financial resilience among students, staff, faculty, trustees, and denominational partners at theological schools.
KeywordsCritical correlational method Student debt Moral stress Moral emotions
- Antonio, E., Arora, K., Doehring, C., & Hernandez, A. (2014). Theological education and economic revitalization: Creating sustainable organizations through authentic engagement. Theological Education, 48(2), 57–67.Google Scholar
- Bethune, S. (2015). Money stress weighs on Americans’ health. APA Monitor, 46(4), 38–40.Google Scholar
- Bingaman, K. A. (2016). Incorporating contemplative neuroscience and mindfulness-based therapies into pastoral care and counseling: A critical correlational method. Pastoral Psychology, forthcoming.Google Scholar
- Bowles, S., Gintis, H., & Groves, M. O. (Eds.). (2008). Unequal chances: Family background and economic success. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Carlin, N. (2016). The meaning of life. Pastoral Psychology, forthcoming.Google Scholar
- Cohn, M. A., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2009). Positive emotions. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed., pp. 13–24). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- DeTienne, K., Agle, B., Phillips, J., Ingerson, M.-C. (2012). The impact of moral stress compared to other stressors on employee fatigue, job satisfaction, and turnover: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Ethics, 110(3), 377–391. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-1197-y.
- Doehring, C. (2015a). Intercultural spiritual care in the aftermath of trauma. In F. Kelcourse & K. B. Lyon (Eds.), Transforming wisdom: The practice of psychotherapy in theological perspective (pp. 148–165). Eugene: Wipf & Stock.Google Scholar
- Doehring, C. (2015b). The practice of pastoral care: A postmodern approach (Revised and expanded ed.). Louisville: Westminster John Knox.Google Scholar
- Haidt, J. (2002). The moral emotions. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 852–870). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Haidt, J. (2008b). Morality. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(1), 65–72. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00063.x.
- Haidt, J. (2013). Moral psychology for the twenty-first century. Journal of Moral Education, 42(3), 281–297. doi: 10.1080/03057240.2013.817327.
- Haidt, J., & Bjorklund, F. (2008). Social intuitionists answer six questions about moral psychology. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.), Moral psychology, vol 2: The cognitive science of morality: Intuition and diversity (pp. 181–217). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Marshall, J. (2004). Methods in pastoral theology, care, and counseling. In N. J. Ramsay (Ed.), Pastoral care and counseling: Redefining the paradigms (pp. 133–154). Nashville: Abingdon Press.Google Scholar
- McGarrah Sharp, M.A. (2016). In search of the phoenix poet: The moving stakes of learning and teaching empathy in a postcolonial world. Pastoral Psychology, forthcoming.Google Scholar
- Miller-McLemore, B. J. (2012a). Introduction: The contributions of practical theology. In B. Miller-McLemore (Ed.), The Wiley-Blackwell companion to practical theology (pp. 1–20). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Miller-McLemore, B. J. (Ed.). (2012b). Wiley-Blackwell companion to practical theology. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Pargament, K., Desai, K. M., & McConnell, K. M. (2006). Spirituality: A pathway to posttraumatic growth or decline? In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 121–135). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Peterson, C. (2006). A primer in positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Ramsay, N. J. (2004). A time of ferment and redefinition. In N. J. Ramsay (Ed.), Pastoral care and counseling: Redefining the paradigms (pp. 1–43). Nashville: Abingdon Press.Google Scholar
- Waters, S. (2016). All visual, all the time: Towards a theory of visual practices for pastoral theological reflection. Pastoral Psychology, forthcoming.Google Scholar
- Weber, L. (2010). Understanding race, class, gender, and sexuality: A conceptual framework (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar