Pastoral Psychology

, Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 71–83 | Cite as

Normative MMPI-2 Profiles of Christian Counseling Students: An Investigation of Subculture in Standardized Testing

  • Keith Marlett
  • Lee Wetherbee
  • Anthony Donofrio


This research sought to explore whether a normative profile on the MMPI-2 emerged for counseling students in a counselor training program at a seminary in the Midwest and the extent to which this profile compares to those proposed for counseling students or those preparing for pastoral ministry. Normative profiles of master’s level counseling students were compared to profiles of similar samples. Findings indicated that profiles of the current student sample are similar to those of other religious students. Implications of these findings are explored regarding the use of the MMPI-2 with counseling students who are members of the Christian subculture.


Counseling students MMPI-2 Personality Christian counseling 



The authors wish to express their appreciation to Emerald Williamson of Ashland Theological Seminary for an insightful review and commentary on earlier drafts of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith Marlett
    • 1
  • Lee Wetherbee
    • 2
  • Anthony Donofrio
    • 2
  1. 1.Grace College and SeminaryWinona LakeUSA
  2. 2.Ashland Theological SeminaryAshlandUSA

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