Advertisement

Pastoral Psychology

, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 49–54 | Cite as

The Romanian Translation of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity: Internal Consistency Reliability, Re-test Reliability and Construct Validity Among Undergraduate Students Within a Greek Orthodox Culture

  • Leslie J. Francis
  • Dan Ispas
  • Mandy Robbins
  • Alexandra Ilie
  • Dragos Iliescu
Article

Abstract

In order to contribute to a growing international research programme concerned with the correlates, antecedents and consequences of individual differences in attitude toward religion, the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity was translated into Romanian and applied within a cultural context shaped by the Greek Orthodox tradition. Data provided by a sample of 158 students (mainly in their late teens and early twenties) supported the internal consistency reliability, re-test reliability and construct validity of this instrument and commended it for further use in studies conducted in Romania.

Keywords

Psychology Religion Measurement Romania Attitude scale 

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality and behaviour. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Campo-Arias, A., Oviedo, H. C., Dtaz, C. F., & Cogollo, Z. (2006). Internal consistency of a Spanish translation of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short form. Psychological Reports, 99, 1008–1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ebel, R. L. (1961). Must all tests be valid? American Psychologist, 16, 640–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eek, J. (2001). Religious facilitation through intense liturgical participation: A quasi-experimental study of Swedish pilgrims to Taizé. Lund: University of Lund Studies in Psychology of Religion.Google Scholar
  6. Eiser, J. R., & van der Pligt, J. (1988). Attitudes and decisions. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Evans, T. E., & Francis, L. J. (1996). Measuring attitude toward Christianity through the medium of Welsh. In L. J. Francis, W. K. Kay, & W. S. Campbell (Eds.), Research in religious education (pp. 279–294). Leominster: Fowler Wright Books.Google Scholar
  8. Ferreira, V., & Neto, F. (2002). Psychometric properties of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity among Portuguese university students. Psychological Reports, 91, 995–998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Francis, L. J. (1978a). Attitude and longitude: A study in measurement. Character Potential, 8, 119–130.Google Scholar
  10. Francis, L. J. (1978b). Measurement reapplied: Research into the child’s attitude towards religion. British Journal of Religious Education, 1, 45–51.Google Scholar
  11. Francis, L. J. (1989). Measuring attitude towards Christianity during childhood and adolescence. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 695–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Francis, L. J. (1992). Reliability and validity of the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity (adult). Panorama, 4(1), 17–19.Google Scholar
  13. Francis, L. J. (1997). The psychology of gender differences in religion: A review of empirical research. Religion, 27, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Francis, L. J., & Enger, T. (2002). The Norwegian translation of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43, 363–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Francis, L. J., & Greer, J. E. (1990). Measuring attitudes towards Christianity among pupils in Protestant secondary schools in Northern Ireland. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 853–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Francis, L. J., & Hermans, C. A. M. (2000). Internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Dutch translation of the Francis scale of Attitude toward Christianity among adolescents. Psychological Reports, 86, 301–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Francis, L. J., Kerr, S., & Lewis, C. A. (2005). Assessing attitude toward Christianity among adolescents in South Africa: The Francis scale. South African Journal of Psychology, 35, 147–155.Google Scholar
  18. Francis, L. J., & Kwiran, M. (1999). Werthaltungen (einstellungen) gegenüber dem christentum bei deutschen heranwachsenden: Die francis-skala. Braunschweiger Beiträge, 89(3), 50–54.Google Scholar
  19. Francis, L. J., Lewis, C. A., & Ng, P. (2002). Assessing attitude toward Christianity among Chinese speaking adolescents in Hong Kong: The Francis scale. North American Journal of Psychology, 4, 431–440.Google Scholar
  20. Francis, L. J., Lewis, J. M., Philipchalk, R., Brown, L. B., & Lester, D. (1995). The internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Francis scale of attitude towards Christianity (adult) among undergraduate students in the UK, USA, Australia and Canada. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 949–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Francis, L. J., & McCarron, M. M. (1989). The measurement of attitudes towards Christianity among Nigerian secondary school students. Journal of Social Psychology, 129, 569–571.Google Scholar
  22. Francis, L. J., & Stubbs, M. T. (1987). Measuring attitudes towards Christianity: From childhood to adulthood. Personality and Individual Differences, 8, 741–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Francis, L. J., & Thomas, E. M. (2003). The reliability and validity of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity among Welsh speaking 9–11 year olds. The Psychologist in Wales, 16, 9–14.Google Scholar
  24. Francis, L. J., Ziebertz, H.-G., & Lewis, C. A. (2002). The psychometric properties of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity among German students. Panorama, 14, 153–162.Google Scholar
  25. Fulljames, P., & Francis, L. J. (1987). The measurement of attitudes towards Christianity among Kenyan secondary school students. Journal of Social Psychology, 127, 407–409.Google Scholar
  26. Gibson, H. M. (1989). Measuring attitudes towards Christianity among 11–16 year old pupils in non-denominational schools in Scotland. Educational Research, 31, 221–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibson, H. M., & Francis, L. J. (1989). Measuring attitudes towards Christianity among 11- to 16-year old pupils in Catholic schools in Scotland. Educational Research, 31, 65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greer, J. E., & Francis, L. J. (1991). Measuring attitudes towards Christianity among pupils in Catholic Secondary schools in Northern Ireland. Educational Research, 33, 70–73.Google Scholar
  29. Hill, P. C., & Hood, R. W. (Eds.) (1999). Measures of religiosity. Birmingham, Alabama: Religious Education Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kay, W. K., & Francis, L. J. (1996). Drift from the churches: Attitude toward Christianity during childhood and adolescence. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  31. Lewis, C. A., & Francis, L. J. (2003). Evaluer l’attitude d’étudiantes universitaires françaises à l’égard du Christianisme: L’Echelle de Francis. Sciences Pastorals, 22, 179–190.Google Scholar
  32. Lewis, C. A., & Maltby, J. (1995). The reliability and validity of the Francis scale of attitude towards Christianity among US adults. Psychological Reports, 76, 1243–1247.Google Scholar
  33. Livingston, S. A. (1988). Reliability of test results. In J. P. Keeves (Ed.), Educational research, methodology and measurement: An international handbook (pp. 386–392). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  34. Maltby, J. (1994). The reliability and validity of the Francis scale of attitude towards Christianity among Republic of Ireland adults. Irish Journal of Psychology, 15, 595–598.Google Scholar
  35. Munayer, S. J. (2000). The ethic identity of Palestinian Arab Christian adolescents in Israel. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wales: Oxford Centre for Mission Studies.Google Scholar
  36. Orton, R. E. (1987). The foundations of construct validity: Towards an update. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21, 22–35.Google Scholar
  37. Spilka, B., Hood, R. W., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R. L. (2003). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (third edition). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  38. Youtika, A., Joseph, S., & Diduca, D. (1999). Personality and religiosity in a Greek Christian Orthodox sample. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 2, 71–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zeller, R. A. (1988). Validity. In J. P. Keeves (Ed.),Educational research, methodology, and measurement: An international handbook (pp. 322–330). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie J. Francis
    • 1
  • Dan Ispas
    • 2
  • Mandy Robbins
    • 3
  • Alexandra Ilie
    • 2
  • Dragos Iliescu
    • 4
  1. 1.Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit, Institute of EducationUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK
  2. 2.University of South FloridaTampaUSA
  3. 3.University of WarwickCoventryUK
  4. 4.National School of Political and Administrative StudiesBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations