Oxidation Behaviour of Alloys 800H, 3033 and 304 in High-Temperature Supercritical Water
The choice of materials is of great concern in the construction of Gen IV supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWRs), particularly the fuel cladding, due to the harsh environment of elevated temperatures and pressures. Material’s performance under simulated conditions must be evaluated to support proper material selection by designers. In this study, alloys 800H, 3003 and 304 were tested in SCW at 700 °C and 25 MPa for 1000 h. The results showed that only alloy 3033 experienced weight gain while weight loss was found for alloys 304 and 800H. Based on SEM/EDS and XRD analyses, spinel and Cr2O3, in addition to small amount of Fe2O3, formed on 800H surface, while predominant Cr2O3 and some spinel were present on alloy 3033. Alloy 304 showed no evidence of Cr2O3 on the surface, although some Cr-containing spinel and Fe2O3 were detected on the surface.
KeywordsOxidation Alloy 800H Alloy 3033 Alloy 304 Supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) Weight change Surface oxide SEM XRD
Funding to the Canada Gen IV National Program was provided by Natural Resources Canada through the Office of Energy Research and Development, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
- 1.World population to 2300, United Nations Department of Economic and Social, New York, 2004.Google Scholar
- 2.Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and Gen IV International Forum, DOE, US, 2002.Google Scholar
- 3.T. Schulenberg, H. Matsui, L. Leung and A. Sedov, Supercritical water cooled reactors, in GIF Symposium Proceedings and 2012 Annual Report, San Diego, 2012.Google Scholar
- 4.M. Yetisir, M. Gaudet and D. Rhodes, Development and integration of Canadian SCWR concept with counter-flow fuel assembly, in ISSCWR-6, Shenzhen, 2013.Google Scholar
- 6.S. Briefing, Nickel-based super alloys, in INSG Insight, 2003.Google Scholar
- 7.L. Zhang, F. Zhu, Y. Bao and R. Tang, Corrosion tests of candidate fuel cladding and reactor internal structural materials, in 2nd Canada-China joint workshop on ‘Supercritical water-cooled reactors’, Toronto, 2010.Google Scholar
- 15.W. Callister, Materials science and engineering an introduction, (John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 2007).Google Scholar
- 16.A. Fry, S. Osgerby and M. Wright, Oxidation of alloys in steam envrironments- a review. National Physical Laboratory Report MATC 90, 1–39 (2002).Google Scholar
- 19.Sand Meyer Steel Company, Specification sheet: Alloy 800H/800HT, [Online]. Available: http://www.sandmeyersteel.com/images/Alloy800H-800HT-APR2013.pdf. [Accessed May 2016].
- 20.Nickel Development Institute, High temperature characteristics of stainless steels, [Online]. Available: http://www.nickelinstitute.org/~/Media/Files/TechnicalLiterature/High_TemperatureCharacteristicsofStainlessSteel_9004_.pdf. [Accessed May 2016].
- 21.VDM Metals, VDM Alloy 33 Nicrofer 33, [Online]. Available: http://www.vdm-metals.com/fileadmin/user_upload/Downloads/Data_Sheets/Data_Sheet_VDM_Alloy_33.pdf. [Accessed May 2016].
- 23.T. Allen, K. Sridharan, Y. Chen, L. Tan, X. Ren and A. Kruizenga, Research and Development on Materials Corrosion Issues in Supercritical Water Environment, in ICPWS XV, Berlin, 2008.Google Scholar
- 24.L. Tan, R. X, K. Sridharan and T. Allen, Corrosion behaviour of Ni-base alloys for advanced high temperature water-cooled nuclear reactions, Corr Sci, vol. 50, pp. 3056–3062, 2008.Google Scholar
- 25.S. Penttila, Private communication. Google Scholar
- 27.T. Allen, Y. Chen, L. Tan, X. Ren and K. Sridharan, Corrosion of Candidate Materials for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors, in 12th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power System – Water Reactors, Warrendale, 2005.Google Scholar
- 34.S. F. Li and et al., Corrosion Behaviour of a 304-Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Austenitic Stainless Steel in Supercritical Water, Materials and Corrosion, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 264–270, 2016.Google Scholar
- 35.G. H. Meier, A Review of Advances in High Tmeperature Corrosion. Materials Science and Engineering A120–121, 1–11 (1989).Google Scholar
- 36.R. M. Deacon, Investigation of Corrosion Resistance of Candidate Overlay Alloys in High Temperature Low Nox Environment, (Lehigh University, Thesis, 2004).Google Scholar