Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 84, Issue 3–4, pp 241–257 | Cite as

The Influence of Cr Evaporation on Long Term Cr Depletion Rates in Ferritic Stainless Steels

Original Paper


It is shown that well defined flow rates are an essential parameter in oxidation experiments influenced by scale volatilisation. The 22 % Cr ferritic steel Sanergy HT, intended for use as an SOFC interconnect material, was exposed discontinuously over 3100 h at 850 °C in air + 3 % H2O @ 6000 sml min−1 (27 cm s−1) and stagnant conditions in a tubular reactor. Time resolved isothermal Cr evaporation measurements over 1000 h were also performed in the 6000 sml min−1 case while the stagnant exposure environment was saturated in Cr(VI) species to suppress any evaporation reactions. Mass balances based on oxidation and evaporation data were in good agreement with SEM/EDX bulk Cr concentration measurements. The time to a bulk concentration of 15 wt% Cr increased by ≈2× from ≈3000 to ≈5500 h when evaporation was suppressed. Further, it was established that a suppressed evaporation reaction affected not just the magnitude of Cr depletion in the steel but even its long term depletion rate.


Ferritic stainless steel SOFC Interconnect Cr evaporation Lifetime Cr depletion 



Oxide thickness (cm)


Scaling constant (cm−2 s−1)


Volatilisation constant (cm s−1)


Time (s)


Stoichiometric factor equal to 3.167


Gravimetrically determined mass gain (mg cm−2)


Oxide loss due to evaporation (mg cm−2)


Evaporation corrected mass gain (mg cm−2)


Gravimetrically determined component of evaporation corrected mass gain (mg cm−2)


Oxide density (mg cm−3)


Mass of Cr in the oxide at time t (mg cm−2)


Mass of Cr initially available in the steel (mg cm−2)


Mass of Cr lost due to evaporation (mg cm−2)


Cr remaining in the steel at time t (mg cm−2)


Average evaporation rate of Cr over the ith measurement interval (mg cm−2h−1)


Duration over which \({\text{E}}_{\text{i}}^{\text{Cr}}\) is applicable (h)



The authors would like to thank AB Sandvik Materials Technology for providing the materials. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) for the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative under Grant Agreement No. [278257].

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chalmers University of TechnologyGothenburgSweden

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