Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 78, Issue 5–6, pp 285–294 | Cite as

Effect of Ga on the Oxidation Properties of Sn–8.5Zn–0.5Ag–0.1Al–xGa Solders

  • Nai-Shuo Liu
  • Kwang-Lung Lin
Original Paper


The oxidation properties of Sn–8.5Zn–0.5Ag–0.1Al–xGa lead-free solders in the liquid state (250 °C) under O2 atmosphere were investigated using a thermal gravimetric analyzer. The Ga content of the investigated solders was 0.05–2 wt%. The results indicate that Ga enhances the oxidation resistance of Sn–Zn–Ag–Al solder. Cross-sections of the solder surfaces were examined using focus ion beam milling. The thickness of the oxidation layer, which was about 30–100 nm, increased with increasing Ga content. The oxidation layer was found to be nonuniform at low Ga content. The oxide layers on the surface of solders were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy and thin-film XRD. The results showed that the oxide layer formed was ZnO. Al and Ga tended to segregate on the surface of the solder.


Sn–Zn Pb-free solder Oxidation resistance ZnO 



The financial support of this work by the National Science Council of the Republic of China under grant NSC-93-2216-E006-011 is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational Cheng-Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan, ROC

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