Advertisement

Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 76, Issue 1–2, pp 1–21 | Cite as

Hot Corrosion of Metals and Alloys

  • Fred Pettit
Review

Abstract

When metals and alloys are used at high temperatures, especially in combustion processes, deposits often accumulate on the metal surfaces and affect the oxidation processes. This paper is concerned with deposit-induced accelerated corrosion, or hot corrosion, of metals and alloys. Initially, the characteristics of hot corrosion are identified for Na2SO4 deposits in terms of the factors that influence the reaction process. It is shown that hot corrosion consists of initiation or incubation and propagation stages. During the initiation or incubation stage, the deposit is shown to not have a significant effect on the corrosion processes, but it is causing conditions to develop whereby the propagation stage characteristics are determined with attendant large increases in the corrosion rates. Type I, high temperature hot corrosion and Type II, low temperature hot corrosion are then described in terms of historical mechanistic perspectives. The dependence of Type I and Type II hot corrosion on temperature and SO3 partial pressure is discussed along with future work that is needed in order to more completely understand these hot corrosion processes along with the effects of some elements such as Cr, Al, Mo, Co and Pt.

Keywords

Hot corrosion Mechanisms Transitions Type I Type II 

Notes

Acknowledgments

G. H. Meier and B. Gleeson are thanked for helpful discussions and assistance in preparing this paper. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) is gratefully acknowledged for support in preparing this paper as well as for many research efforts dealing with hot corrosion attack.

References

  1. 1.
    J. Stringer, Annual Review of Materials Research 7, 477 (1976).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. S. Zhang and R. A. Rapp, Journal of Metals 46, 47 (1994).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. S. Pettit and C. S. Giggins, in Superalloys II, eds. C. T. Sims, N. S. Stoloff, and W. C. Hagel (John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 1987).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Hancock, Corrosion of Alloys at High Temperatures in Atmospheres Consisting of Fuel Combustion Products and Associated Impurities, (Her Majesty’s Printing Office, London, 1968).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K.-Y. Jung, F. S. Pettit, and G. H. Meier, Materials Science Forum 595–598, 805 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. S. Bornstein and M. A. DeCrescente, Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME 245, 1947 (1969).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. F. Aprigliano, Burner Rig Simulation of Low Temperature Hot Corrosion. David W. Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center, Report MAT-77-68, November, 1977.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. T. Reid, External Corrosion and Deposits in Boilers and Gas Turbines, (Elsevier, New York, 1971).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. U. Seybolt, Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME 242, 1955 (1968).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. S. Bornstein and M. A. DeCrescente, Metallurgical Transactions 2, 2875 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. A. Rapp and K. S. Goto, in Molten Salts, eds. J. Braunstein and J. R. Selman (The Electrochemical Society, 9, Pennington, NJ, 1981), p. 81.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. S. Zhang and R. A. Rapp, Corrosion 43, 348 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. A. Goebel and F. S. Pettit, Metallurgical Transactions 1, 1943 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. Otsuka and R. A. Rapp, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 137, 46 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. K. Mishra, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 133, 1038 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. P. Lillerud and P. Kofstad, Oxidation of Metals 21, 233 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Kofstad and G. Akesson, Oxidation of Metals 14, 301 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. L. Luthra, Metallurgical Transactions, 13A, 1982, 1647 and 1843.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. H. Barkalow and F. S.Pettit, On the oxidation mechanisms for hot corrosion of CoCrAlY coatings in marine gas turbines. Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Gas Turbine Materials in a Marine Environment (Naval Sea Systems Command, Annapolis, MD, 1979), p. 493.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. T. Chiang, F. S. Pettit, and G. H. Meier, in High Temperature Corrosion, NACE-6, ed. R. A. Rapp (National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Houston, TX, 1983), p. 519.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Schaeffer, G. M. Kim, G. H. Meier, and F. S. Pettit, in The Role of Active Elements in the Oxidation Behavior of High Temperature Metals and Alloys, ed. E. Lang (Elsevier, London, 1989), p. 231.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations