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Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 27–45 | Cite as

Phosphate Sorption and Desorption on Pyrite in Primitive Aqueous Scenarios: Relevance of acidic → Alkaline Transitions

  • Fernando de Souza-Barros
  • Raphael Braz-Levigard
  • Yonder Ching-SanJr.
  • Marisa M. B. Monte
  • José A. P. Bonapace
  • Viviane Montezano
  • Adalberto Vieyra
Article

Abstract

Phosphate (P i) sorption assays onto pyrite in media simulating primeval aquatic scenarios affected by hydrothermal emissions, reveal that acidic conditions favour P i sorption whereas mild alkaline media – as well as those simulating sulfur oxidation to SO2− 4 – revert this capture process. Several mechanisms relevant to P i availability in prebiotic eras are implicated in the modulation of these processes. Those favouring sorption are: (a) hydrophobic coating of molecules, such as acetate that could be formed in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents; (b) water and Mg2+ bridging in the interface mineral-aqueous media; (c) surface charge neutralization by monovalent cations (Na+ and K+). The increase of both the medium pH and the SO2− 4 trapping by the mineral interface would provoke the release of sorbed P i due to charge polarization. Moreover it is shown that P i self-modulates its sorption, a mechanism that depends on the abundance of SO2− 4 in the interface. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms of P i capture, release and trapping arises from the need of abundant presence of this molecule for primitive phosphorylations, since – similarly to contemporary aqueous media – inorganic phosphate concentrations in primitive seas should have been low. It is proposed that the presence of sulphide minerals with high affinity to P i could have trapped this molecule in an efficient manner, allowing its concentration in specific niches. In these niches, the conditions studied in the present work would have been relevant for its availability in soluble form, specially in primitive insulated systems with pH gradients across the wall.

Keywords

Iron sulfide minerals Primitive seawater-sulfides interfaces Acidic → alkaline transitions Phosphate capture and release mechanisms Modulation of phosphate availability in primitive scenarios Phosphorylation reactions 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando de Souza-Barros
    • 1
  • Raphael Braz-Levigard
    • 2
  • Yonder Ching-SanJr.
    • 2
  • Marisa M. B. Monte
    • 3
  • José A. P. Bonapace
    • 4
  • Viviane Montezano
    • 2
  • Adalberto Vieyra
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de FísicaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de Biofísica Carlos FilhoUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroFilhoBrazil
  3. 3.Centro de Tecnologia MineralMinistério da Ciência e TecnologiaRio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade UniversitáriaRio de JaneiroBrazil

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