Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 447–460 | Cite as

Catalytic Activities Of [GADV]-Peptides

Formation and Establishment of [GADV]-Protein World for the Emergence of Life
  • Takae Oba
  • Jun Fukushima
  • Masako Maruyama
  • Ryoko Iwamoto
  • Kenji Ikehara


We have previously postulated a novel hypothesis for the origin of life, assuming that life on the earth originated from “[GADV]-protein world”, not from the “RNA world” (see Ikehara's review, 2002). The [GADV]-protein world is constituted from peptides and proteins with random sequences of four amino acids (glycine [G], alanine [A], aspartic acid [D] and valine [V]), which accumulated by pseudo-replication of the [GADV]-proteins. To obtain evidence for the hypothesis, we produced [GADV]-peptides by repeated heat-drying of the amino acids for 30 cycles ([GADV]-P30) and examined whether the peptides have some catalytic activities or not. From the results, it was found that the [GADV]-P30 can hydrolyze several kinds of chemical bonds in molecules, such as umbelliferyl-β-D-galactoside, glycine-p-nitroanilide and bovine serum albumin. This suggests that [GADV]-P30 could play an important role in the accumulation of [GADV]-proteins through pseudo-replication, leading to the emergence of life. We further show that [GADV]-octapaptides with random sequences, but containing no cyclic compounds as diketepiperazines, have catalytic activity, hydrolyzing peptide bonds in a natural protein, bovine serum albumin. The catalytic activity of the octapeptides was much higher than the [GADV]-P30 produced through repeated heat-drying treatments. These results also support the [GADV]-protein-world hypothesis of the origin of life (see Ikehara's review, 2002). Possible steps for the emergence of life on the primitive earth are presented.


origin of life [GADV]-protein world hypothesis pseudo-replication of [GADV]-proteins prebiotic synthesis chemical evolution peptide catalyst primitive enzyme 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takae Oba
    • 1
  • Jun Fukushima
    • 1
  • Masako Maruyama
    • 1
  • Ryoko Iwamoto
    • 1
  • Kenji Ikehara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceNara Women's UniversityKita-uoya-nishi-machiJapan

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