Raman spectroscopy and low temperature electrical conductivity study of thermally evaporated CdS thin films

  • Rashmitha Keshav
  • Ashok Rao
  • M. G. Mahesha


A systematic study has been carried out on properties of CdS thin films grown on glass substrates by thermal route and growth parameters have been optimized to achieve near stoichiometry. Raman spectroscopy of the films has been carried out to get more insight on chemical and structural information of the films. Photoluminescence study was carried out to get the knowledge of defect-states which play major role in transport mechanisms. In order to obtain electrical parameters, Hall measurement has been carried out by van der Pauw’s technique at room temperature. Also, variation of electrical resistivity of the films at temperature range 20–300 K has been studied. Finally effect of post deposition annealing on the structural, optical and electrical properties of these films has been studied.


X-ray diffraction Physical vapor deposition processes Raman spectroscopy Low temperature conductivity Semiconducting cadmium compounds 



The authors are grateful to VGST, Govt. of Karnataka State India (VGST/K-FIST(L1)/GRD-377/2014-15) for financial assistance.


  1. Abdulkhadar, M., Thomas, B.: Study of Raman spectra of nanoparticles of CdS and ZnS. Nanostruct. Mater. 5, 289–298 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badr, Y., Abd El-Kader, K., Khafagy, R.: Raman spectroscopic study of CdS, PVA composite films. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 92, 1984–1992 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boakye, F., Nusenu, D.: The energy band gap of cadmium sulphide. Solid State Commun. 102, 323–326 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Britt, J., Ferekides, C.: Thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency. Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2851–2852 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Canevari, L.Z., Romeo, V.N., Sberveglieri, G., Azzi, S., Tosi, A., Curti, M.: Low resistivity CdS thin films grown by flash-evaporation at low substrate temperature. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vac. Surf. Films 2, 9–10 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chandramohan, S., Sathyamoorthy, R., Sudhagar, P., Kanjilal, D., Kabiraj, D., Asokan, K., Ganesan, V., Shripathi, T., Deshpande, U.: High-energy heavy-ion induced physical and surface-chemical modifications in polycrystalline cadmium sulfide thin films. Appl. Phys. A 94, 703–714 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chi, T.T.K., Gouadec, G., Colomban, P., Wang, G., Mazerolles, L., Liem, N.Q.: Off-resonance Raman analysis of wurtzite CdS ground to the nanoscale: structural and size-related effects. J. Raman Spectrosc. 42, 1007–1015 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Christopher, B., Rao, A., Petwal, V., Verma, V., Dwivedi, J., Lin, W., Kuo, Y.: Influence of electron beam irradiation on electrical, structural, magnetic and thermal properties of Pr 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3 manganites. Physica B 502, 119–131 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chu, T., Chu, S., Britt, J., Ferekides, C., Wang, C., Wu, C., Ullal, H.: 14.6% efficient thin-film cadmium telluride heterojunction solar cells. IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 13, 303–304 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chuu, D.S., Dai, C.M., Hsieh, W.F., Tsai, C.T.: Raman investigations of the surface modes of the crystallites in CdS thin films grown by pulsed laser and thermal evaporation. J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8402–8404 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dzhagan, V., Milekhin, A.G., Valakh, M.Ya., Pedetti, S., Tessier, M., Dubertrete, B., Zahna, D.R.T.: Morphology-induced phonon spectra of CdSe/CdS nanoplatelets: core/shell vs. core–crown. Nanoscale 8, 17204–17212 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. El Assali, K., Boustani, M., Khiara, A., Bekkay, T., Outzourhit, A., Ameziane, E., Bernede, J., Pouzet, J.: Some structural and optical properties of CdS thin films prepared by RF sputtering. Phys. Status Solidi (a) 178, 701–708 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Farid, S., Stroscio, M.A., Dutta, M.: Raman scattering investigations of CdS thin films grown by thermal evaporation. AIP Conf. Proc. 45, 45–48 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Filippidis, L., Siegle, H., Hoffmann, A., Thomsen, C.: Hyper-Raman scattering on GaN and CdS. Phys. Status Solidi (B) 212, R1–R2 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hariech, S., Aida, M., Moualkia, H.: Observation of Meyer–Neldel rule in CdS thin films. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 15, 181–186 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hasnat, A., Podder, J.: Effect of annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of pure CdS thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique. Adv. Mater. Phys. Chem. 02, 226–231 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hwang, J.Y., Monteiro, S.N., Bai, C.G., Carpenter, J., Cai, M., Firrao, D., Kim, B.G.: Characterization of Minerals, Metals, and Materials, pp. 251–258. Wiley (2012)Google Scholar
  18. Irimpan, L., Ambika, D., Kumar, V., Nampoori, V.P.N., Radhakrishnan, P.: Effect of annealing on the spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of thin films of nano-ZnO. J. Appl. Phys. 104, 33118-1–33118-9 (2008)Google Scholar
  19. Jacome, C.: Study of electrical transport properties in polycrystalline CdTe thin films. Thin Solid Films 396, 257–263 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jácome, C., Giraldo, J.: Properties of ZnO thin films through percolation model. Microelectron. J. 39, 1316–1317 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kozytskiy, A.V., et al.: Photoelectrochemical and Raman characterization of nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. Thin Solid Films 562, 56–62 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee, J.: Raman scattering and photoluminescence analysis of B-doped CdS thin films. Thin Solid Films 451–452, 170–174 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leite, R.C.C., Scott, J.F., Damen, T.C.: Multiple-phonon resonant raman scattering in CdS. Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 780–782 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meher, S., Kaushik, D., Subrahmanyam, A.: Native defects in sol–gel derived CdS buffer layers for photovoltaic applications. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 28, 6033–6046 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Muthusamy, M., Muthukumaran, S.: Effect of Cu-doping on structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of CdS thin films. Optik 126, 5200–5206 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nanda, K.K., Sarangi, S.N., Sahu, S.N., Deb, S.K., Behera, S.N.: Raman spectroscopy of CdS nanocrystalline semiconductors. Physica B 262, 31–39 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Narayanam, P.K., Soni, P., Mohanta, P., Srinivasa, R.S., Talwar, S.S., Major, S.S.: Effect of heat treatment on the photoluminescence of CdS nanocrystallites in cadmium-rich organic Langmuir Blodgett matrix. Mater. Chem. Phys. 139, 196–209 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Oboudi, S.F., Mohamed, G.H., Khalaf, K., Adem, K.A.: Synthesis and study of annealing effect on electrical properties of CdS doped Zn thin films. Int. J. Thin Films Sci. Technol. 275, 267–275 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oliva, A., Castro-Rodrı́guez, R., Solı́s-Canto, O., Sosa, V., Quintana, P., Peña, J.: Comparison of properties of CdS thin films grown by two techniques. Appl. Surf. Sci. 205, 56–64 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Prabahar, S., Dhanam, M.: CdS thin films from two different chemical baths—structural and optical analysis. J. Cryst. Growth 285, 41–48 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Qinghui, Y., Huaiwu, Z., Yingli, L.I.U., Qiye, W.E.N.: Magneto-optical properties of nanometer scale Bi:YIG films. J. Chin. Ceram. Soc. 35, 1190–1193 (2007)Google Scholar
  32. Sakai, H., Tamaru, T., Sumomogi, T., Ezumi, H., Ullrich, B.: Crystal direction of CdS thin film produced by laser ablation. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 4149–4153 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Senthil, G.L.N.R., Mangalaraj, K.D., Narayandass, S.K., Kesavmoorthy, R.: Raman scattering and XRD analysis in argon ion implanted CdS thin films prepared by vacuum evaporation. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 173, 475–482 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sivasubramanian, V., Arora, A.K., Premila, M., Sundar, C.S., Sastry, V.S.: Optical properties of CdS nanoparticles upon annealing. Physica E 31, 93–98 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tell, B., Damen, T., Porto, S.: Raman effect in cadmium sulfide. Phys. Rev. 144, 771–774 (1966)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Trajić, J., et al.: Raman spectroscopy of optical properties in CdS thin films. Sci. Sinter. 47, 145–152 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ullrich, B., Tomm, J., Dushkina, N., Tomm, Y., Sakai, H., Segawa, Y.: Photoelectric dichroism of oriented thin film CdS fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition. Solid State Commun. 116, 33–35 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Van der Pauw, L.J.: A method of measuring the resistivity and hall coefficient on lamellae of arbitrary shape. Philips Tech. Rev. 20, 220–224 (1958)Google Scholar
  39. Von Dreele, R., Jorgensen, J., Windsor, C.: Rietveld refinement with spallation neutron powder diffraction data. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 15, 581–589 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wu, X., Dhere, R.G., Albin, D.S., Gessert, T.A., Dehart, C., Keane, T.C., Duda, A., Coutts, T.J., Asher, S., Levi, D.H., Moutinho, H.R., Yan, Y., Moriarty, T., Johnson, S., Emery, K., Sheldon, P.: High Efficiency CTO/ZTO/CdS/CdTe Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells. National Center for Photovoltaics Program Review Meeting, Lakewood, CO. No. cp-250-31025 (2001)Google Scholar
  41. Yilmaz, K., Faculty, A.: Some structural, electrical and optical properties of vacuum evaporated CdS thin films. J. Ovonic Res. 10, 211–219 (2014)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of TechnologyManipal UniversityManipalIndia

Personalised recommendations