Optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis for enhanced efficiency perovskite solar cell application

  • Nitu Kumari
  • Sanjaykumar R. Patel
  • Jignasa V. Gohel


In the present study, ZnO thin films are prepared successfully by simple and flexible spray pyrolysis technique on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate. The thermal spray deposition process is optimized by varying all the major parameters simultaneously: (1) precursor concentration; (2) substrate temperature; (3) carrier gas pressure; and (4) solution flow rate. Optical, structural and morphological properties are appropriately studied in detail. Most influencing parameters were observed to be the precursor concentration and substrate temperature, affecting film thickness, roughness, the band gap, and efficiency. It is confirmed that prepared films are uniform and crystalline in nature with a preferred orientation in (002) plane. The optical band gap is favourably in the range of 3.0–3.2 eV. At optimum conditions, the appropriate band gap (3.05 eV), thickness (89 nm) and roughness (2.38 nm) is achieved. The prepared films are consequently applied for perovskite solar cell preparation. Additionally, CuI (low-cost hole transport material) and carbon (counter electrode) are utilized. The efficiency of the device at optimum conditions is obtained to be maximum (3.21%). Maximum open circuit voltage (0.52 V), the maximum short circuit current (10.11 mA cm−2) and maximum fill factor (61%) is also achieved by the optimum device.


ZnO film Morphological analysis Sprays pyrolysis Solar cell 



The authors acknowledge S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat-395007, Gujarat, India; Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility (SAIF), Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India; and Sophisticated Instrumentation Centre, Gujarat, India for rendering analytical services for this work.

Supplementary material

11082_2018_1376_MOESM1_ESM.docx (398 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 398 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nitu Kumari
    • 1
  • Sanjaykumar R. Patel
    • 1
  • Jignasa V. Gohel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringSardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of TechnologySuratIndia

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