Photocurrent enhancement of heat treated CdSe-sensitized titania nanotube photoelectrode
- 134 Downloads
The self-organized titania nanotube arrays (NTAs) fabricated by anodisation has gained enormous interest due to its high spatial orientation, excellent charge transfer structure, and large internal surface area; all are crucial properties influencing the absorption and propagation of light. In this study, a composite material, CdSe nanoparticle/TiO2 nanotube arrays (CdSe/TiO2 NTAs) were assembled through the insertion of CdSe nanoparticles onto the anodized TiO2 nanotube arrays via electrochemical deposition. The annealing temperature of CdSe/TiO2 NTAs was varied from 200 to 350 °C and was found to play an important role in controlling the formation of CdSe nanoparticles on TiO2 NTAs. Characterizations of the films were performed by using field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopes, X-ray diffractometry and UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The transient photocurrent was examined in a three-electrode system under halogen illumination by using the prepared film as the photoanode. It was found that the CdSe nanoparticles were susceptible to spread through electrochemical deposition and formed on the nanotubes by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. The increment in annealing temperature has resulted in greater amount of CdSe loaded onto TiO2 nanotube arrays. Therefore, a suitable annealing temperature can enhance the particle interaction, leading to considerable improvement in PEC performance. The sensitized CdSe/TiO2 NTAs annealed at 250 °C displayed 84 folds improvement in photoconversion efficiency than that of bare TiO2 NTAs counterparts.
KeywordsHeat-treated Electrochemical deposition CdSe TiO2 nanotube Photoelectrochemical Photoconversion efficiency
We thank the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia and the Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research of Iraq for financial support to Asmaa Kadim Ayal. Special thanks are extended to Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, and Microscopy Unit, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
- Ayal, A.K., Zainal, Z., Lim, H.-N., Talib, Z.A., Lim, Y.-C., Chang, S.-K., Samsudin, N.A., Holi, A.M., Amin, W.N.M.: Electrochemical deposition of CdSe-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance for solar cell application. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 27, 5204–5210 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cullity, B.D.: Elements of X-ray Diffraction, 2nd edn, pp. 78–103. Addison Wesley, Boston (1987)Google Scholar
- Fitzmorris, R.C., Larsen, G., Wheeler, D.A., Zhao, Y., Zhang, J.Z.: Ultrafast charge transfer dynamics in Polycrystalline CdSe/TiO2 nanorods prepared by oblique angle co-deposition ultrafast charge transfer dynamics in polycrystalline CdSe/TiO2 nanorods prepared by oblique angle co-deposition. J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 5033–5041 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huang, J., Zhang, K., Lai, Y.: Fabrication, modification, and emerging applications of TiO2 nanotube arrays by electrochemical synthesis: a review. Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 1–19 (2013)Google Scholar
- Lana-Villarreal, T., Shen, Q., Toyoda, T., Go, R., Guijarro, N.: Go mez, R., Gomez, R.: sensitization of Titanium dioxide photoanodes with cadmium selenide quantum dots prepared by SILAR: photoelectrochemical and carrier dynamics studies. J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 21928–21937 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lim, Y.C., Zainal, Z., Hussein, M.Z., Tan, W.T.: Preparation and Characterization of Nanostructured TiO2 via Electrochemical Anodization in Aqueous Ammonium Fluoride. Malays. J. Chem. 11, 129–135 (2009)Google Scholar
- Tvrdy, K., Kamat, P.: V: substrate driven photochemistry of CdSe quantum dot films: charge injection and irreversible transformations on oxide surfaces substrate driven photochemistry of CdSe quantum dot films: charge injection and irreversible transformations on oxide surfaces. J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 3765–3772 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang, H., Fan, W., Vaneski, A., Susha, A.S., Teoh, W.Y., Rogach, A.L.: Heterojunction engineering of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots on TiO2 nanotube arrays: intricate effects of size-dependency and interfacial contact on photoconversion efficiencies. Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 2821–2829 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar