Advertisement

Experimental characterization of apodized wavelength modulation spectroscopy for accurate quantitative measurement

  • Mehran Jozdani Mohammadi
  • Alireza Khorsandi
  • Saeed Sabouri Ghavami
Article

Abstract

The potential and drawbacks of the apodized 2f/1f wavelength modulation spectroscopy are theoretically studied and experimentally characterized. We apply a near-infrared DFB-based laser spectrometer, tunable around the R(32) CO2 absorption line centered at 6369.408 cm−1. The performance of the apodized method is shown by minimizing the pressure deviation between the gauge and experimental pressures by using the beneficial effect of the scaling \(k\)-factor. This factor equalizes the experimental and simulated peak heights of the CO2 absorption trace. We found that when \(k\)-factor is varied up to its optimum value of ~200, a pressure deviation of nearly zero is obtained at a case pressure of 19 ± 0.5 mbar. Under such optimum condition a minimum uncertainty of ±1 mbar is also obtained for the pressure deviation. However, we further acquired that far from this optimum condition, compared to the common method, the apodized approach is also capable of reducing the pressure deviation by ~13.5 % at 20 ± 0.5 mbar of CO2 pressure, indicating the performance of the proposed method for precise pressure measurement of a gas sample, regardless of the optical limits.

Keywords

Wavelength modulation Absorption spectroscopy Near infrared laser spectroscopy 

References

  1. Chao, X., Jeffries, J., Hanson, R.: Absorption sensor for CO in combustion gases using 2.3 µm tunable diode lasers. Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(11), 115201 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hanf, S., et al.: Fiber-enhanced Raman multigas spectroscopy: a versatile tool for environmental gas sensing and breath analysis. Anal. Chem. 86(11), 5278–5285 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hosseinzadeh, S.S., Khorsandi, A.: Apodized 2f/1f wavelength modulation spectroscopy method for calibration-free trace detection of carbon monoxide in the near-infrared region: theory and experiment. Appl. Phys. B 116(3), 521–531 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kelly, F.J.: Oxidative stress: its role in air pollution and adverse health effects. Occup. Environ. Med. 60(8), 612–616 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Klein, A., Witzel, O., Ebert, V.: Rapid, time-division multiplexed. Direct Absorpt. Wavel. Modul.-Spectrosc. Sens. 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014)Google Scholar
  6. Lee, B.G., et al.: Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lewtas, J.: Air pollution combustion emissions: characterization of causative agents and mechanisms associated with cancer, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects. Mutat. Res./Rev. Mutat. Res. 636(1), 95–133 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Li, H., et al.: Near-infrared diode laser absorption sensor for rapid measurements of temperature and water vapor in a shock tube. Appl.Phys. B 89(2–3), 407–416 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Maulini, R., et al.: Continuous-wave operation of a broadly tunable thermoelectrically cooled external cavity quantum-cascade laser. Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2584–2586 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Meng, Z., et al.: Vasodilator effect of gaseous sulfur dioxide and regulation of its level by Ach in rat vascular tissues. Inhal. Toxicol. 21(14), 1223–1228 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mohammadi, J.M., Khorsandi, A., Sabouri, G.S.: Polymeric fiber sensor for sensitive detection of carbon dioxide based on apodized wavelength modulation spectroscopy. Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 219–229 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nguyen, Q., et al.: Tomographic measurements of carbon monoxide temperature and concentration in a bunsen flame using diode laser absorption. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97(12), 1634–1642 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rieker, G.B.: Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments. Stanford University, Stanford (2009)Google Scholar
  14. Rieker, G.B., Jeffries, J.B., Hanson, R.K.: Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments. Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5546–5560 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ross, A.B., et al.: Measurement and prediction of the emission of pollutants from the combustion of coal and biomass in a fixed bed furnace. Fuel 81(5), 571–582 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rothman, L.: HITRAN on the Web. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CFA), Cambridge (2014)Google Scholar
  17. Senior, C.L., et al.: Gas-phase transformations of mercury in coal-fired power plants. Fuel Process. Technol. 63(2), 197–213 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sun, K.: Utilization of multiple harmonics of wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy for practical gas sensing. Stanford University, Stanford (2013)Google Scholar
  19. Sun, K., et al.: TDL absorption sensors for gas temperature and concentrations in a high-pressure entrained-flow coal gasifier. Proc. Combust. Inst. 34(2), 3593–3601 (2013a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sun, K., et al.: Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers. Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125203 (2013b)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sun, K., et al.: Wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure gas sensing. Appl. Phys. B 110(4), 497–508 (2013c)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tittel, F.K., et al.: Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers. Rev. Laser Eng. 34(4), 275–282 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vijayaraghavan, R., et al.: A bioreporter bioluminescent integrated circuit for very low-level chemical sensing in both gas and liquid environments. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(2), 922–928 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Waclawek, J., et al.: Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL. Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 113–120 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wagner, S., et al.: TDLAS-based in situ measurement of absolute acetylene concentrations in laminar 2D diffusion flames. Proc. Combust. Inst. 32(1), 839–846 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehran Jozdani Mohammadi
    • 1
  • Alireza Khorsandi
    • 1
  • Saeed Sabouri Ghavami
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations