Optimization and Engineering

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 401–442 | Cite as

Optimization of washing machine kinematics, dynamics, and stability during spinning using a multistep approach

  • Thomas Nygårds
  • Viktor Berbyuk


The vibrations originating from badly distributed load inside the drum are in this paper channeled into cost functions which are used as objectives for optimization. The defined kinematic cost function deals with performance of tub motion and can ensure margins to collision of parts inside the washing machine or constitute a step in the process to increase the machine capacity. The dynamic cost function measures transmitted vertical force to the hosting structure. Forces which cause noise and vibration impact on the surroundings. Two different cost functions for stability of a washing machine in the sense of walking avoidance are also presented. The difference between these formulations is studied with an example, which shows that although it is costly to evaluate the second formulation it will give more freedom to find good washing machine designs.

Three different applied problems which aim to optimize different suspension designs for new and existing washing machines are presented.

For effective numerical computation of the complex multiobjective optimization problems a multistep approach for washing machine structural optimization is presented. With the help of parallel calculation of the response of dynamic models implemented in Adams∖View, the approach has been used to solve the presented problems.

Results derived from the solution to the optimization problems have been used in development of new washing machines which afterwards have been put on the market.


Washing machine Vibrations Suspension system Multiobjective optimization Pareto front Parallel computation 



This work was supported financially by Asko Appliances AB, Vara, Sweden.

The authors wish to thank to Peder Bengtsson, Anders Eriksson, Patrik Jansson, Anders Sahlén and Marcus Person, all working at above mentioned company, for their support and ideas during the project within which this paper was written.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied MechanicsChalmers University of TechnologyGöteborgSweden

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