Numerical Algorithms

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 141–167 | Cite as

Bessel, sine and cosine functions and extrapolation methods for computing molecular multi-center integrals

  • Hassan Safouhi
Original Paper


In this work, we present an extremely efficient approach for a fast numerical evaluation of highly oscillatory spherical Bessel integrals occurring in the analytic expressions of the so-called molecular multi-center integrals over exponential type functions. The approach is based on the Slevinsky-Safouhi formulae for higher derivatives applied to spherical Bessel functions and on extrapolation methods combined with practical properties of sine and cosine functions. Recurrence relations are used for computing the approximations of the spherical Bessel integrals, allowing for a control of accuracy and the stability of the algorithm. The computer algebra system Maple was used in our development, mainly to prove the applicability of the extrapolation methods. Among molecular multi-center integrals, the three-center nuclear attraction and four-center two-electron Coulomb and exchange integrals are undoubtedly the most difficult ones to evaluate rapidly to a high pre-determined accuracy. These integrals are required for both density functional and ab initio calculations. Already for small molecules, many millions of them have to be computed. As the molecular system gets larger, the computation of these integrals becomes one of the most laborious and time consuming steps in molecular electronic structure calculation. Improvement of the computational methods of molecular integrals would be indispensable to a further development in computational studies of large molecular systems. Convergence properties are analyzed to show that the approach presented in this work is a valuable contribution to the existing literature on molecular integral calculations as well as on spherical Bessel integral calculations.


The Slevinsky-Safouhi formulae Oscillatory integrals Extrapolation methods Numerical integration Molecular multi-center integrals 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mathematical Section, Campus Saint-JeanUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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