Table 1 Detailed explanations of disaster events

From: A method to characterize the social cascading damage processes of disasters using media information

Classification DE number DE DE details
Natural disaster DE1 Heavy rain Occurrence of heavy rain that can cause disasters
  DE2 Intense heat Temperatures so high that they adversely affect human health
  DE3 Landslides Mountain and cliff surfaces/rocks come sliding down
Can block roads and train lines
  DE4 Debris flow Gravel and rocks flow through a river with large amounts of water
Debris flows can push down bridges, homes, and trees
  DE5 Overflow Inundation by water
Overflow is broadly classified as river overflow, where water spills out from rivers, and levee overflow, where water dispersal into rivers is too slow and urban areas become flooded
  DE6 Flooding Homes and agricultural fields are inundated with water due to overflow
  DE7 Fallen trees Can block rivers, which can in turn cause river overflow
Traffic DE8 Commuting difficulties Normal commuting and school attendance is disrupted
Time and money spent on commuting increases relative to pre-disaster levels
  DE9 Abandoned train lines Train facilities are struck by disasters, and restoration/recovery is difficult
  DE10 Increased substitute means of transportation Use of private automobiles and substitute transfer services increases because normal methods cannot be used
Ferry and truck traffic volume increases due to the suspension of freight trains
  DE11 Traffic jams/congestion Traffic jams occur on roads
Transport facilities become congested
  DE12 Traffic accidents Traffic accidents occur on roads when road traffic is restricted due to disasters
  DE13 Cut-off roads and train lines Roads and train line structures struck by disasters are cut off
Human DE14 Deaths Loss of life due to landslides, river overflows, the collapse of homes, etc.
Loss of life due to delayed rescue
  DE15 Missing Missing individuals, regardless of whether they are dead or alive
  DE16 Isolation Roads/lifelines cut off
  DE17 Injury When people are injured during disaster events
  DE18 Poor health Poor health while living in evacuation shelters
Spread of infectious disease
Heatstroke of volunteers due to rescue work in intense heat as well as those displaced by disaster
  DE19 Fear/uncertainty When individuals suffer fear or uncertainty regarding disaster
Infrastructure DE20 Power outage When power supply is suspended
  DE21 Communication interruption Disconnected phone service due to severed cables or base station power outages
  DE22 Interrupted gas supply When gas supply is interrupted
  DE23 Setup of evacuation shelters Opening of schools and community centers as evacuation shelters
Home/automobile DE24 House/automobile damage Homes and automobiles are damaged
Supply chain DE25 Damage to agriculture and fisheries Delivery of crops and seafood affected due to landslide and flooding damage
  DE26 Manufacturer shutdown Shutdown of operations due to the inability of employees to commute, suspension of the supply of parts, or due to suspension of lifelines
  DE27 Closed business Businesses closed due to damage to facilities (factory, agriculture, fisheries) or storefront damage and abandoning its repair
Regional population outflow
  DE28 Suspension of supplier operation Forced suspension of operations due to disrupted or suspended operations of the parts suppliers
  DE29 Insufficient number of rental cars Insufficient number of rental cars due to the increased demands from the media and individuals who lost their personal vehicles
  DE30 Increased demand for anti-theft goods Individuals are on increased alert for disaster prevention, and demand for anti-theft goods increases outside the affected area
Medical DE31 Suspension of hospital function Medical equipment is damaged, and diagnoses/surgeries cannot be performed
Workers cannot commute and hospitals cannot reopen due to suspended lifelines
  DE32 Hospital patient transfer Patients are transferred to other hospitals from hospitals in which medical examinations cannot resume
Regional DE33 Decreased land prices in the disaster area Land prices in the disaster area decrease
  DE34 Suspension/changes in symbolic local events Symbolic local events (e.g., sports competitions, religious events, firework festivals) are suspended or cancelled
  DE35 Damaged reputation Number of tourists decreases in the region
  DE36 Implementation of promotional tourism campaigns A promotional tourism campaign is implemented for the revitalization of the disaster area
  DE37 Moving to other regions Individuals who lost their homes move to other regions
Administrative DE38 Revisiting of disaster-related standards Traffic regulation standards and contents of supplied evacuation information are changed due to experiences during the disaster
  DE39 Waste generation from disaster Large amounts of waste are generated after a disaster
  DE40 Failure of pre-determined disaster prevention measures Dissemination of evacuation information is delayed
Region unequipped for the acceptance of volunteers and material aid
  DE41 Changes in school vacation/starting times Schools forced to close due to their use as evacuation sites or disaster waste storage, or because staff cannot commute to work
School starting times delayed in order to avoid congestion due to school attendance
  DE42 Unresolved searches Search efforts and damage reports of affected individuals do not progress due to the overwhelming amount of information regarding cut-off roads and damage information
  DE43 Aid received from other prefectures Volunteers or material aid is sent from other prefectures
  DE44 Occurrence of theft Occurrence of theft incidents coinciding with the disaster, where individuals target empty stores and homes
  DE45 Gratitude in response to aid Affected individuals send thanks to volunteers and aid sent from other prefectures
Affected region actively provides aid at the time of other disasters
  DE46 Increased price of crops and seafood Delivery of regional specialties (crops, seafood) is suspended, and the price of these products increases