Organization of volunteer personnel and proper management of these enormous and valuable human resources to make that most of their scientific, experiential, physical, and expertise power is of paramount importance, so in disasters and emergencies, lack of proper planning for organizing volunteers in the health sector is one of the most critical issues in the Iranian health system. The primary objective of this study is designing a model for the organization of volunteer people in disasters and emergencies in Tehran’s hospitals, utilizing an integrated approach of Fuzzy Delphi and interpretative structure modeling. The present study is mixed research. This study was conducted during 2017–2018 using the Fuzzy Delphi method to identify and rank the indices. A total of 26 disaster management specialists and experts in the hospitals participated in two rounds in this designed Delphi study. After extracting the primary components through systematic studies and interviews with the experts, two rounds were conducted in the presence of the experts. A structural-interpretive modeling approach was used to interpret the data. The Fuzzy Delphi results after two rounds yielded 11 indices in the form of two criteria. Then, the internal relationships of the criteria were investigated using structural-interpretive modeling, according to which the criteria were classified into three levels. Based on the results of the research, individual characteristics, social characteristics, appropriate type of employment, information strategies in initial enrollment, participatory recruitment methods, information recording methods, type of natural disasters, hospital–volunteers communication system, pre-incident preparation measures of the volunteers, intra-incident and post-incident preparation measures were determined in two indices of selection and preparation using Fuzzy Delphi technique. The results indicated that most of the measures related to the organization of volunteer personnel are interrelated, and preparation indicators of pre-, during, and post-incidents and the individuals’ characteristics are all among the necessary operational measures which can be done by operational managers at the basic levels of organizations. This means that methods and strategies can provide a higher-level context. Ultimately, as expected, this means that other studied indicators influence participatory recruitment methods and the communication system between the hospital and the volunteers. In this regard, the researchers, managers, and policymakers can use the results of the research in policymaking in the field of health care. Organization of volunteer personnel can be of great help to the hospitals in the field of health care.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abedi G, Moosazadeh M, Ranjbar M, Abedini E (2017) Developmental levels of educational hospitals for confronting the unexpected disasters in Mazandaran Province. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 27(148):79–87
Adib M, Nakhsaz M (2006) Organizing relief, health and therapeutic forces in crisis. In: 3rd international congress on health and crisis management in disaster
Ali J (2000) SEoNSO. Spatial distribution of health services in urban areas of Tehran. Eographical Researches, 19–31
Allen K (2003) 11 vulnerability reduction and the community-based approach. Nat Dis Dev Glob World 2003:170
Appleby L (2013) Connecting the last mile: the role of communications in the Great East Japan Earthquake. Internews, London
Ardalan A, Rajaei MH, Masoumi G, Azin A, Zonoobi V, Sarvar M et al (2012a) 2012–2025 roadmap of I. R. Iran’s disaster health management. PLoS Curr 4:e4f93005fbcb34
Ardalan A, Rajaei MH, Masoumi G, Azin A, Zonoobi V, Sarvar M (2012) 2012–2025 roadmap of I.R. Iran’s disaster health management. PLoS Curr 4:e4f93005fbcb34
Ardalan A, Kandi Keleh M, Saberinia A, Khorasani-Zavareh D, Khankeh H, Miadfar J et al (2016) 2015 estimation of hospitals safety from disasters in I. R. Iran: the results from the assessment of 421 hospitals. PLoS One 11(9):e0161542
Asefzadeh S, Rezapour A (2003) Hospital management and research. Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, pp 189–190
Babakhani F, Yazdani M, Noori M (2014) Important influential factors on people’s tendency for voluntary participation during crisis. J Crisis Manag 2(2):5–13
Balikuddembe JK, Ardalan A, Khorasani-Zavareh D, Nejati A, Kasiima S (2016) Factors affecting the exposure, vulnerability and emergency medical service capacity for victims of road traffic incidents in Kampala Metropolitan Area: a Delphi study. BMC Emerg Med 17(1):1
Balikuddembe JK, Ardalan A, Khorasani-Zavareh D, Nejati A, Raza O (2017) Weaknesses and capacities affecting the Prehospital emergency care for victims of road traffic incidents in the greater Kampala metropolitan area: a cross-sectional study. BMC Emerg Med 17(1):29
Bernard A (2017) The role of hospital volunteers in disaster planning and response. Prehosp Dis Med 32(S1):S73
Bikmoradi A, Brommels M, Shoghli A, Khorasani-Zavareh D, Masiello I (2010) Identifying challenges for academic leadership in medical universities in Iran. Med Educ 44(5):459–467
Buckle P (2001) Community based management: a new approach to managing disasters, Draft
Chapman K, Arbon P (2008) Are nurses ready? Disaster preparedness in the acute setting. Aust Emerg Nurs J 11(3):135–144
Cheng J-H, Lee C-M, Tang C-H (2009) An application of Fuzzy Delphi and fuzzy AHP on evaluating wafer supplier in semiconductor industry. WSEAS Trans Inf Sci Appl 6(5):756–767
Cliff BJ, Morlock L, Curtis AB (2009) Is there an association between risk perception and disaster preparedness in rural US hospitals? Prehosp Dis Med 24(6):512–517
Coppola DP (2006) Introduction to international disaster management. Elsevier, Berlin
Cuskelly G, Hoye R, Auld C (2006) Working with volunteers in sport: theory and practice. Routledge, London
Dursun M, Karsak EE (2010) A fuzzy MCDM approach for personnel selection. Expert Syst Appl 37(6):4324–4330
Falkowski PP (2013) Volunteer programming impact on long-term care facilities. PhD dissertation. University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Friedman FD (1995) Public relations in disaster management and planning for emergency physicians. J Emerg Med 13(5):661–668
Garcia C, Rabadi G (2011) Optimising coordinated multi-team volunteer scheduling: a combined constraint programming and goal programming approach. Int J Ind Syst Eng 9(2):183–194
Habibi A, Jahantigh FF, Sarafrazi A (2015) Fuzzy Delphi technique for forecasting and screening items. Asian J Res Bus Econ Manag 5(2):130–143
Haraoka T, Hayasaka S, Murata C, Ojima T (2013) Prevention of injuries and diseases in non-professional disaster volunteer activities in the Great East Japan Earthquake areas: a preliminary study. Public Health 127(1):72
Jahangiri K, Tabibi S, Maleki MR, Alamdari S (2009) A comparative study on community-based disaster management (CBDM) in selected countries and proposing a model for Iran. Payesh 8(1):49–57
James SL, Castle CD, Dingels ZV, Fox JT, Hamilton EB, Liu Z et al (2020) Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Inj Prev: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention.
Jenkinson CE, Dickens AP, Jones K, Thompson-Coon J, Taylor RS, Rogers M et al (2013) Is volunteering a public health intervention? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the health and survival of volunteers. BMC Public Health 13(1):773
Kannan G, Pokharel S, Kumar PS (2009) A hybrid approach using ISM and fuzzy TOPSIS for the selection of reverse logistics provider. Resour Conserv Recycl 54(1):28–36
Kaufmann A, Gupta MM (1988) Fuzzy mathematical models in engineering and management science. Elsevier, Berlin
Keeney S, Hasson F, McKenna HP (2001) A critical review of the Delphi technique as a research methodology for nursing. Int J Nurs Stud 38(2):195–200
Keim ME (2020) The epidemiology of extreme weather event disasters (1969–2018). Prehosp Dis Med 35(3):267–271
Kelly AMMASM (2018) Identifying the effective factors on increasing the social resilience of vulnerable and worn-out neighborhoods in the face of natural disasters (case study: Tehran). Urban Manag Stud 34(10):13–26
Nabilou B, Khorasani-Zavareh D (2014) The bridge between real and ideal: students perception on quality gap in reality and their educational expectations. Iran Red Crescent Med J 16(9):e14254
Nivolianitou Z, Synodinou B (2011) Towards emergency management of natural disasters and critical accidents: the Greek experience. J Environ Manag 92(10):2657–2665
Ocak T, Duran A, Ozdes T, Hocagil C, Kucukbayrak A (2013) Problems encountered by volunteers assisting the relief efforts in Van, Turkey and the surrounding earthquake area. Acad Emerg Med 2013(12):66–70
Özerdem A, Jacoby T (2006) Disaster management and civil society: earthquake relief in Japan. IB Tauris London, Turkey and India
Portal NS (2017) Solar population and housing census results
Public Health Agency of Canada (2018) Sustaining the emergency response episodic volunteer maintaining the passion, Ottawa
Rahnavard F, Sh A (2009) Identify effective factors to attract public volunteer groups for giving voluntarily services in Red Crescent society. Sci J Rescue Relief 1(2):39–53
Ramezani Nejad R, Rahmaninia F, Taqavi Takiar A (2009) Investigating motivation of participants of public sports in open areas. Sport Manag 2:5–19
Roberts TL (2008) Why disaster volunteers volunteer. Arkansas Tech University, Little Rock
Rogstadius J, Teixeira C, Karapanos E, Kostakos V (eds) (2013). An introduction for system developers to volunteer roles in crisis response and recovery. In: ISCRAM
Salmani I, Seyedin H, Ardalan A, Farajkhoda T (2019) Conceptual model of managing health care volunteers in disasters: a mixed method study. BMC Health Serv Res 19(1):241–250
Seyedin H (2005) Disaster management system of Iran-need to eliminate weaknesses and problems. Iran J Public Health 34(1):31–32
Seyedin H, Ryan J, Sedghi S (2011) Lessons learnt from the past and preparedness for the future: how a developing country copes with major incidents. Emerg Med J. 28(10):887–891
Shropshire DJ (2013) Red cross and red crescent. Encycl Nat Hazards 2013:825–826
Siddiqi S, Huda Q, ElAsady E (2008) The role of hospitals in enhancing public health security: perspectives from the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In: International hospital federation reference book 2008/2009
Sinclair M (2001) Education in emergencies. Learning for a future: Refugee education in developing countries. Commonw Educ Partnersh Commonw Secr 2001:1–84
Suzuki I (2006) Roles of volunteers in disaster prevention: Implications of questionnaire and interview surveys. A better integrated management of disaster risks: toward resilient society to emerging disaster risks in mega-cities Tokyo: Terra Scientific Publishing Company and National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, pp 153–163
Vandentorren S, Salmi LR, Brochard P (2005) Recognition of occupational cancers: review of existing methods and perspectives. Bull Cancer 92(9):799–807
Yodmani S (2001) Disaster risk management and vulnerability reduction: protecting the poor. The Center, New York
This study was conducted in collaboration with Urmia University of Medical Sciences and Tehran Universities. We also appreciate the cooperation and support of all our colleagues at Urmia University of Medical Sciences and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran and Iran, Red Crescent administrators, and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and all hospital heads and managers.
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Jannat, F., Khorasani-Zavareh, D., Mir-Aghazadeh-Attari, J. et al. Designing a model for organizing volunteer personnel in disasters and emergencies in Tehran’s hospitals: an integrated approach of Fuzzy Delphi and interpretative structure modeling (ISM). Nat Hazards (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-020-04055-z
- Volunteer personnel
- Disasters and emergencies
- Fuzzy Delphi