Vertical drains to minimize duration of seasonal waterlogging in Eastern Ganges Basin flood plains: a field experiment
- 32 Downloads
In the Ganges basin, 8268.6 km2 of irrigation command area is waterlogged following monsoon rains. In this study, vertical drain (VD) (L × D, 7 × 1 m) filled with drainage gravel (6.5 m) and coarse sand (0.5 m) is installed in farmer’s agricultural field to minimize the duration of seasonal waterlogging and tested in Mukundpur village, Vaishalli District, Bihar, India. At the experimental site, inundation of rainfall and runoff from surrounding areas along with the seepage from an earthen canal start in September and remain till February, every year which prevents timely planting of wheat in November-end/December. Drainage due to percolation and recharge to groundwater is constrained by 6.4-m thick clay layer, below 0.5-m root-zone, and the groundwater level, which rises to the surface level. VDs were installed to provide a path and allow inundated water to recharge the aquifer, as groundwater level recedes. Groundwater level drop, floodwater infiltration rate, groundwater discharge, and VD capability were estimated through field data. Results show that VDs connected the floodwater to groundwater and transferred the floodwater to the aquifer when groundwater level started to recede. The site was fully drained by the end of December, permitting farmers to plant wheat in January providing cool nights at germination, thus increasing yields.
KeywordsSeasonal waterlogging Agriculture land Drainage Vertical drains Bihar Eastern Ganges Basin
Authors would like to thank ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna, Bihar for their help in soil samples analysis and the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and its donors for funding this research study. Authors wish to thank Dr. Dipankar Saha, Member, CGWB, India, for periodic consultations, and Mr. Anoj Kumar, IWMI, Hajipur office, Bihar, for his help in data collection.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements—FAO irrigation and drainage paper 56. Food Agric Organ UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Aslam K, Rashid S, Saleem R, Aslam RMS (2015) Use of geospatial technology for assessment of waterlogging and salinity conditions in the Nara Canal Command area in Sindh, Pakistan. J Geogr Inf Syst 7(4):438–447Google Scholar
- Bihar Through Figures (2011) Directorate of statistics and economics, Patna, Bihar. http://dse.bih.nic.in/New-Publications/Bihar%20Through%20figures%202011.pdf. Accessed March 2017
- Bo MW, Chu J, Choa V (2000) Discharge capacity of prefabricated vertical drain. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Asian geosynthetics conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp 29–31Google Scholar
- CGWB (2007) Groundwater information booklet. Central Groundwater Board, Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India, Vaishali DistrictGoogle Scholar
- Chowdary VM, Chandran RV, Neeti N, Bothale RV, Srivastava YK, Ingle P, Ramakrishnan D, Dutta D, Jeyaram A, Sharma JR, Singh R (2008) Assessment of surface and sub-surface waterlogged areas in irrigation command areas of Bihar state using remote sensing and GIS. Agric Water Manag 95:754–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dutta D, Sharma JR, Bothale RV, Bothale V (2004) Assessment of waterlogging and salt affected soils in the command areas of all major and medium irrigation projects in India, Technical document. Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre, Jodhpur, pp 1–74Google Scholar
- Groundwater Resources Estimation methodology (2009) Report of the groundwater resource estimation committee. Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Han D, Song X, Currell MJ, Cao G, Zhang Y, Kang Y (2011) A survey of groundwater levels and hydrogeochemistry in irrigated fields in the Karamay agricultural development area, northwest China: implications for soil and groundwater salinity resulting from surface water transfer for irrigation. J Hydrol 405(3–4):217–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kamon M, Pradahon TBS, Suwa S, Hanyo T, Akai T, Imanishi H (1994) The evaluation of discharge capacity of prefabricated bond shaped drains. In: Proceedings symposium on geotexile test methods. JSSMFE, Tokyo, pp 77–82Google Scholar
- MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forests) (2007) State of environment report, Bihar. Bihar State Pollution Control Board, Patna, and Department of Environment and Forest, Government of Bihar. http://moef.nic.in/soer/state/SoE%20report%20of%20Bihar.pdf. Accessed March 2016
- NGRBA (National Ganga river basin authority) (2011) Volume 1-environmental and social analysis. Environmental and social management framework (ESMF); 165. http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/Draft%20ESA%20Volume%20I.pdf. Accessed March 2017
- Singh A et al (2016) Optimization modeling for conjunctive use planning of surface water and groundwater for irrigation. J Irrig Drain Eng 142(3):04015060-1-9Google Scholar
- Vaishali at a Glance (2014) Vaishali at a glance. http://vaishali.bih.nic.in/glance.htm. Accessed March 2016