Natural Hazards

, Volume 91, Issue 2, pp 819–836 | Cite as

Maximum scour depth around bridge pier in gravel bed streams

  • Manish Pandey
  • P. K. Sharma
  • Z. Ahmad
  • Nilav Karna
Original Paper


Precise prediction of scour near the circular uniform pier may lead to the economic design of piers and avoid disastrous instances. Present study mainly deals with cohesionless sediment with gravel particles. Authors checked the three latest bridge pier scour models in this study. Three new relationships are proposed by authors for computing maximum scour depth, maximum scoured length and maximum effected scoured width in cohesionless sediment at equilibrium scour condition. Maximum scour depth equation is validated by the available literature data, and this relationship is applicable for both gravel as well as the sand bed. Graphically and statistically the new maximum scour depth relationship gives better agreements between observed and computed values of maximum scour depth. Relationships for maximum scoured length and maximum effected scoured width are only applicable for gravel and coarse sand bed and also gives better agreement with computed values.


Pier Clear-water scour Maximum scour depth Maximum scoured length Maximum scoured width Equilibrium scour stage 


  1. Choi SU, Choi B (2016) Prediction of time-dependent local scour around bridge piers. Water Environ J 30(1–2):14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Das S, Midya R, Das R, Mazumdar A (2013) A study of wake vortex in the scour region around a circular pier. Int J Fluid Mech Res 40(1):42–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dey S, Bose SK, Sastry GL (1995) Clear water scour at circular piers: a mode. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 121(12):869–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Diab R, Link O, Zanke U (2010) Geometry of developing and equilibrium scour holes at bridge piers in gravel. Can J Civ Eng 37(4):544–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Garde RJ, Raju KR (2000) Mechanics of sediment transportation and alluvial stream problems, vol 17. Taylor & Francis, London, p 686Google Scholar
  6. Holnbeck SR (2011) Investigation of pier scour in coarse-bed streams in Montana, 2001 through 2007 (No. Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5107), US Department of the Interior, US Geological SurveyGoogle Scholar
  7. Khan M, Azamathulla HM, Tufail M (2012) Gene-expression programming to predict pier scour depth using laboratory data. J Hydroinform 14(3):628–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Khan M, Azamathulla HM, Tufail M, Ab Ghani A, Neill C, Andres D (2014) Discussion: Bridge pier scour prediction by gene expression programming. Proc Inst Civ Eng 167(6):368Google Scholar
  9. Khosronejad A, Kang S, Sotiropoulos F (2012) Experimental and computational investigation of local scour around bridge piers. Adv Water Resour 37:73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kothyari UC (1989) Scour around bridge piers, Doctoral Thesis, India: University of RoorkeeGoogle Scholar
  11. Kothyari UC, Ranga Raju KG (2001) Scour around spur dikes and bridge abutments. J Hydraul Res (ASCE) 39(4):367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kothyari UC, Garde RJ, Ranga Raju KG (1992a) Temporal variation of scour around circular bridge piers. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 118(8):1091–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kothyari UC, Garde RJ, Ranga Raju KG (1992b) Live bed scour-around cylindrical bridge piers. J Hydraul Res (IAHR) 30(5):701–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kothyari UC, Hager WH, Oliveto G (2007) Generalized approach for clear-water scour at bridge foundation elements. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 133(11):1229–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lança RM, Fael CS, Maia RJ, Pêgo JP, Cardoso AH (2013) Clear-water scour at comparatively large cylindrical piers. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 139(11):1117–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lauchlan CS, Melville BW (2001) Riprap protection at bridge piers. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 127:412–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lodhi AS (2015) Scour around spur dikes and bridge piers founded in cohesive sediment mixtures. Doctoral Thesis, India: Indian Institute of Technology RoorkeeGoogle Scholar
  18. Lodhi AS, Jain RK, Sharma PK, Karna N (2014) Time evolution of clear water bridge pier scour. In: Proceedings of international civil engineering symposium. VIT University Vellore, India, pp 252–260Google Scholar
  19. Melville BW, Coleman SE (2000) Bridge scour, vol 9. Water Resources Publication, Littleton, p 547Google Scholar
  20. Oliveto G, Hager WH (2002) Temporal evolution of clear-water pier and abutment scour. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 128(9):811–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oliveto G, Hager WH (2005) Further results to time-dependent local scour at bridge elements. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 131(2):97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pandey M, Ahmad Z, Sharma PK (2015) Estimation of maximum scour depth near a spur dike. Can J Civ Eng 43(3):270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pandey M, Ahmad Z, Sharma PK (2017a) Scour around impermeable spur dikes: a review. ISH J Hydraul Eng. Google Scholar
  24. Pandey M, Sharma PK, Ahmad Z, Singh UK, Karna N (2017b) Three-dimensional velocity measurements around bridge piers in gravel bed. Mar Georesour Geotechnol. Google Scholar
  25. Pandey M, Sharma PK, Ahmad Z, Singh UK (2017c) Evaluation of existing equations for temporal scour depth around circular bridge piers. Environ Fluid Mech 17(5):981–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qi M, Li J, Chen Q (2016) Comparison of existing equations for local scour at bridge piers: parameter influence and validation. Nat Hazards 82(3):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Raikar RV, Dey S (2005) Clear-water scour at bridge piers in fine and medium gravel beds. Can J Civ Eng 32(4):775–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Raudkivi AJ, Witte HH (1990) Development of bed features. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 116(9):1063–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Richardson EV, Davis SR (2001) Evaluating scour at bridges: Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18, FHWA NHI, 01-001Google Scholar
  30. Sheppard DM, Odeh M, Glasser T (2004) Large scale clear-water local pier scour experiments. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 130(10):957–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sheppard DM, Melville B, Demir H (2013) Evaluation of existing equations for local scour at bridge piers. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 140(1):14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yanmaz AM (2006) Temporal variation of clear water scour at cylindrical bridge piers. Can J Civ Eng 33(8):1098–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yanmaz AM, Altinbilek HDGA (1991) Study of time-dependent local scour around bridge piers. J Hydraul Eng (ASCE) 117(10):1247–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manish Pandey
    • 1
  • P. K. Sharma
    • 1
  • Z. Ahmad
    • 1
  • Nilav Karna
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Institute of TechnologyRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations