Natural Hazards

, Volume 91, Issue 1, pp 375–408 | Cite as

The relevance of flood hazards and impacts in Turkey: What can be learned from different disaster loss databases?

  • Gamze KoçEmail author
  • Annegret H. Thieken
Original Paper


Turkey has been severely affected by many natural hazards, in particular earthquakes and floods. Especially over the last two decades, these natural hazards have caused enormous human and economic damage. Although there is a large body of literature on earthquake hazards and risks in Turkey, comparatively little is known about flood hazards and risks. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the severity of flooding in comparison with other natural hazards in Turkey and to analyse the flood patterns by providing an overview of the temporal and spatial distribution of flood losses. These will act as a metric for the societal and economic impacts of flood hazards in Turkey. For this purpose, Turkey Disaster Database (TABB) was used for the years 1960–2014. As input for more detailed event analyses, the most severe flood events in Turkey for the same time interval will also be retrieved. Sufficiency of the TABB database to achieve the main aim of the study in terms of data quality and accuracy was also discussed. The TABB database was analysed and reviewed through comparison, mainly with the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT), the Global Active Archive of Large Flood Events—Dartmouth Flood Observatory database, news archives and the scientific literature, with a focus on listing the most severe flood event. The comparative review of these data sources reveals big mismatches in the flood data, i.e. the reported number of events, number of affected people and economic loss all differ dramatically. Owing to the fact that the TABB is the only disaster loss database for Turkey, it is important to explore the reasons for the mismatches between TABB and the other sources with regard to aspects of accuracy and data quality. Therefore, biases and fallacies in the TABB loss data are also discussed. The comparative TABB database analyses show that large mismatches between global and national databases can occur. Current global and national databases for monitoring losses from national hazards suffer from a number of limitations, which in turn could lead to misinterpretations of the loss data. Since loss data collection is gaining more and more attention, e.g. in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, this study offers a framework for developing guidelines for the Turkey Disaster Database (TABB), implications on how to standardize national loss databases and implement across the other hazard events in Turkey.


Historic natural hazards Floods Disaster loss databases Flood impacts Turkey 



This study was undertaken as part of the “ITN - ALErT: Anatolian pLateau climatE and Tectonic hazards” Project, funded within the European Union (EU) Marie Curie Actions programme “Initial Training Networks (ITN)” under grant agreement FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN (no. 607996).


  1. AFAD—Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Authority (2016) UDAP National Earthquake Investigation Program. Accessed 13 July 2016
  2. AFAD—T.C. Başbakanlık Afet ve Acil Durum Yönetimi Başkanlığı (2011) Afetler ve Afet Yönetimi.’da-afet-y%C3%B6netimi—mustafa-sezer.pdf. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  3. AKOM—Afet Koordinasyon Merkezi (2007) 21 Mayis-27 Mayis 2007 Türkiye’de ve Dünya’da Meydana Gelen Afetler. Accessed 04 Aug 2016
  4. Aksoy B, Coskun M (2010) Aksu Vadisi (Giresun) Aşaği Kesiminde Doğal Ortam Şartlarinin Taşkin Üzerine Etkileri. Gazi Türkiyat Türkoloji Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1(7). Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  5. Altundal M (2010) Taskinlarin Ekonomik Boyutu. 2. Ulusal Taşkin Sempozyumu Panel Sunulari ve Tebliğler Kitabi (22–24 Mart 2010). Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  6. Arman H, Yuksel I, Saltabas L, Goktepe F, Sandalci M (2010) Overview of flooding damages and its destructions: a case study of Zonguldak-Bartin basin in Turkey. Nat Sci 2(04):409. Google Scholar
  7. Ataman O, Tabban A (1977) Türkiye’de Yerleşme Alanlarının Doğal Afetler İle İlişkileri. Mimarlık Derg 153:25–27Google Scholar
  8. Avci V, Sunkar M (2015) Giresun’da Sel ve Taşkin Oluşumuna Neden Olan Aksu Çayi ve Batlama Deresi Havzalarinin Morfometrik Analizleri. Coğrafya Dergisi (30): 91–119. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  9. Avsar E (2014) Ege Bölgesi’nde Meydana Gelen Şiddetli Yağişlarin Analizi ve Etkileri. Technical report.
  10. Bahadir M (2014) Samsun’da Meydana Gelen 4 Temmuz ve 6 Ağustos 2012 Taşkinlarinin Klimatik Analizi. Coğrafya Dergisi (29):28–50. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  11. Bakir PG, Boduroglu HM (2002) Earthquake risk and hazard mitigation in Turkey. Earthq Spectra 18(3):427–447. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beyhun EN, Altintaş KMH, Noji EC (2005) Analysis of registered floods in Turkey. Int J Disaster Med 3(1–4):50–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bianet—Bagimsiz Iletisim Agi, IPS Iletisim Vakfi (2003) Selin Bilançosu: 5 Ölü, 33 Trilyon Lira (News agency report, 29 December 2003, Monday 00:00). Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  14. Buldur AD, Pınar A, Başaran A (2007) 05–07 Mart 2004 Tarihli Göksu Nehri Taşkını ve Silifke’ye Etkisi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 17:139–160. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  15. Ceylan A, Alan I, Ugurlu A (2007) Causes and effects of flood hazards in Turkey. In: International congress of river basin management, pp 22–24. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  16. Citiroglu HK, Baysal G (2011) Effects of geological and hydrological factors on the creation of flooding in Kozlu, Zonguldak, NW Turkey. Int J Phys Sci 6(6):1360–1373. Google Scholar
  17. Dartmouth Flood Observatory—Global Active Archive of Large Flood Events (2016). Accessed 04 Aug 2016
  18. Dogruel F (2014) Deindustrialization of old industrial regions in Turkey. Rives Méditerranéennes 3(2014):93–108. Google Scholar
  19. EM-DAT—Emergency Events Database (2016) OFDA/CRED international disaster database. Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. Accessed 13 July 2016
  20. Erdik M, Biro YA, Onur T, Sesetyan K, Birgoren G (1999) Assessment of earthquake hazard in Turkey and neighboring. Ann Geophys. Google Scholar
  21. Ergünay O (2007) Türkiye’nin Afet Profili. TMMOB Afet Sempozyumu Bildiriler Kitabı, pp 5–7. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  22. Ertek TA (1995) Senirkent Seli (13 Temmuz 1995-Isparta). Türk Coğrafya Dergisi (30). Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  23. EVDS—Turkiye Cumhuriyeti Merkez Bankasi Elektronik Veri Dagitim Sistemi (2016).$ozetweb&DIL=TR&ARAVERIGRUP=bie_dkdovizgn.db. Accessed 04 Aug 2016
  24. Gall M (2015) The suitability of disaster loss databases to measure loss and damage from climate change. Int J Glob Warm 8(2):170–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gall M, Borden KA, Cutter SL (2009) When do losses count? Bull Am Meteor Soc 90(6):799. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Genç FS (2007) Türkiye’de Kentleşme ve Doğal Afet Riskleri ile İlişkisi. TMMOB Afet Sempozyumu. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  27. Glavovic BC, Smith GP (2014) Adapting to climate change: lessons from natural hazards planning, introduction: learning from natural hazards experience to adapt to climate change. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–38. Google Scholar
  28. Gökce O, Özden S, Demir A (2008) Türkiye’de afetlerin mekansal ve istatistiksel dağilimi afet bilgileri envanteri. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  29. Guha-Sapir D, Below R (2002) The quality and accuracy of disaster data: a comparative analyses of three global data sets. World Bank, Disaster Management Facility, ProVention Consortium. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  30. Gülkan P, Sucuoglu H, Ergünay O (1992) Earthquake vulnerability, loss and risk assessment in Turkey. In: Earthquake engineering, tenth world conference, Rotterdam. ISBN 90 5410 060 5Google Scholar
  31. Gürer I (1998) Flood disasters and preventative measures in Turkey. J Nat Disaster Sci 20(1):1–9. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  32. Gürer I, Uçar I (2009) Flood disasters’ inventory in Turkey in 2009. In: International symposium on water management and hydraulic engineering, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  33. Gürgen G (2004) Doğu Karadeniz Bölümünde Maksimum Yağışlar ve Taşkınlar Açısından Önemi. Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 24(2). Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  34. Haldon J, Roberts N, Izdebski A, Fleitmann D, McCormick M, Cassis M, Doonan O, Eastwood W, Elton H, Ladstätter S, Manning S, Newhard J, Nicoll K, Telelis I, Xoplaki E (2014) The climate and environment of byzantine anatolia: integrating science, history, and archaeology. J Interdiscipl Hist 45(2):113–161.
  35. IRDR—Integrated Research on Disaster Risk (2014) IRDR peril classification and hazard glossary, report of the data group in the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  36. IRDR—Integrated Research on Disaster Risk (2015) Guidelines on measuring losses from disasters: human and economic impact indicators. Integrated Research on Disaster Risk, Beijing, IRDR DATA Publication No. 2. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  37. Jha MK (2010) Natural and anthropogenic disasters: vulnerability, preparedness and mitigation. Springer, Berlin. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. JRC—Joint Research (2013) Recording disaster losses. Report by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.,
  39. Kadıoğlu M (2012) Türkiye’de İklim Değişikliği Risk Yönetimi. Turkiye’nin İklim Değişikliği II, Ulusal Bildiriminin Hazırlanması Projesi Yayını Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  40. Koçman A, Kayan İ (1996) İzmir’de 3-4 Kasım 1995 Karşıyaka Sel Felaketi (Oluşumu gelişimi, etkileri ve alınması gereken önlemler). Araştırma Raporu. E.Ü. İzmir Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi yayını-1. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  41. Kömüşcü AÜ, Çelik S (2013) Analysis of the Marmara flood in Turkey, 7–10 September 2009: an assessment from hydrometeorological perspective. Nat Hazards 66(2):781–808. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kömüşcü AÜ, Çelik S, Ceylan A (2011) 8–12 Eylül 2009 Tarihlerinde Marmara Bölgesi’nde Meydana Gelen Sel Olayının Yağış Analizi. Coğrafi Bilimler Dergisi, in CBD 9(2):209–220. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  43. Merz B, Kreibich H, Schwarze R, Thieken AH (2010) Review article: assessment of economic flood damage. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10(8):1697–1724. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MGM—Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlügü (2015) Türkiye Yagis Istatistikleri.
  45. Mutluer M, Isik S (2000) The observations about the works after Karsiyaka-Cigli flood disaster on november 1995. Aegean Geogr J 11(2000):57–74. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  46. Oberndorfer S, Fuchs S, Rickenmann D, Andrecs P (2007) Vulnerabilitätsanalyse und monetäre Schadensbewertung von Wildbachereignissen in Österreich. BfW Berichte, Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum für Wald, Naturgefahren und Landschaft (BfW), WienGoogle Scholar
  47. Önsoy H (2011) Yaz Taşkin Periyodu ve Bölgesel Su Konseyi. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  48. Özcan E (2006) Sel olayı ve Türkiye. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 26(1):35–50Google Scholar
  49. Özdemir O, Yilmaz C (2011) Factors affecting risk mitigation revisited: the case of earthquake in Turkey. J Risk Res 14(1):17–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Özden AT (2004) Evaluation of post-disaster housing in Senirkent. Dissertation, İstanbul Technical University. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  51. Özmen B (2000) 17 Ağustos 1999 İzmit Körfezi Depreminin Hasar Durumu (Rakamsal Verilerle). TDV/DR 010-53, Türkiye Deprem Vakfı, 132 s. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  52. Pfurtscheller C, Thieken AH (2013) The price of safety: costs for mitigating and coping with Alpine hazards. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 13:2619–2637. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reis S, Atasoy M, Nişancı R, Yalçın A, Bayrak T, Sancar C, İnan H (2007) Doğal Afetlere Yönelik Konumsal Veritabani Oluşturulmasi: Rize İli Örneği. TMMOB Harita ve Kadastro Mühendisleri Odası 11. Türkiye Harita Bilimsel ve Teknik Kurultayı, 2–6 Nisan 2007. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  54. Şahin K (2002) Çarşamba Ovası ve yakın çevresinde sel afeti (27 Mayıs 2000). Türk Coğrafya Dergisi (39). Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  55. Şahinalp MS (2007) Neden ve sonuçlarıyla Şanlıurfa İlinde yaşanan sel felaketleri (28–29 Ekim, 01 Kasım 2006). Türk Coğrafya Dergisi (49). Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  56. Sevgican A, Tüzel Y, Gül A, Eltez RZ (2000) Türkiye’de örtüaltı yetiştiriciliği. Türkiye Ziraat Müh. V. Teknik Kongresi, Ankara, 2, 679–707. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  57. Sezer LI (1997) İzmir’de 34 Kasım 1995 Karşıyaka-Çiğli Sel Felaketi (Meteorolojik- Klimatolojik Açıdan Bir Yaklaşım). Ege Coğrafya Dergisi 9(1). Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  58. Smith K, Petley DN (2009) Environmental hazards: assessing risk and reducing disaster, 5th edn. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, London, p 383Google Scholar
  59. TABB—Türkiye Afet Bilgi Bankası (2016) Accessed 13 July 2016
  60. TBMM—Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (2010) Deprem Riskinin Araştırılarak Deprem Yönetiminde Alınması Gereken Önlemlerin Belirlenmesi Amacıyla Kurulan Meclis Araştırması Komisyonu Raporu. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  61. TCMB—Turkiye Cumhuriyeti Merkez Bankasi (2016) Indicative exchange rates. Accessed 04 Aug 2016
  62. T.C. Çevre ve Orman Bakanliği Devlet Su İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü (2008) XXII. Bölge Müdürlüğü: 5. Dünya Su Forumu Türkiye Bölgesel Hazirlik Toplantilari Taşkin, Heyelan ve Dere Yataklarinin Korunmasi Konferansi Bildiri Kitabı. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  63. Tonbul S, Sunkar M (2011) Batman’da Yaşanan Sel ve Taşkın Olaylarının (31 Ekim-1 Kasım 2006) Sebep ve Sonuçları. Fiziki Coğrafya Araştırmaları, Sistematik ve Bölgesel, Türk Coğrafya Kurumu Yayınları, İstanbul, No: 5, Sayfa: 237–258Google Scholar
  64. TÜIK—Türkiye Istatistik Kurumu (2014) Secilmis Göstergelerle Kars 2013. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu Matbaası, Ankara, s.97, Eylül 2014. Accessed 05 Aug 2016
  65. Türk Kizilayi (2004) Afet Müdahale ve Yardim Müdürlüğü 2004 Yili Faaliyet Raporu. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  66. Türkoğlu N (2009) Analysis of floods occurred on October 31–November 1, 2006 in Southeast Anatolia region. Nat Sci 4(4):243–254. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  67. Turoglu H (2011) İstanbul’da Meydana Gelen Sel ve Taşkınlar. Fiziki Coğrafya Araştırmaları, Sistematik ve Bölgesel, Türk Coğrafya Kurumu Yayınları, No: 5, 411–430. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  68. UNISDR—The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015) Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  69. UNISDR—The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (2017) Chair’s summary: from commitment to action, global platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (22–26 May 2017, Cancun, Mexico).
  70. USGS—The United States Geological Survey (2000) USGS earthquake hazards program, implications for earthquake risk reduction in the United States from the Kocaeli, Turkey, Earthquake of August 17, 1999. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  71. Yüksek Ö, Kankal M, Üçüncü O (2013) Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey. Environ Monit As 185(1):797–814. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yurt R (2012) Doğu Karadeniz Bölümü Doğal Afet Planlarinin Hazirlanmasi. TUCAUM VII. Coğrafya Sempozyumu 17–19 Ekim, 2012 Ankara. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  73. Zeybek I (1998) 22 Mayıs 1998 Havza Sel-Taşkın Felaketi. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 11(1):160–167. Accessed 10 Aug 2016

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Earth and Environmental ScienceUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations