Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 86, Issue 3, pp 1127–1146 | Cite as

Numerical simulation of physical and dynamical characteristics associated with the severe thunderstorm on April 5, 2015 at Kushtia and Jhenaidah

  • Samarendra Karmakar
  • Dewan Abdul Quadir
  • Mohan Kumar Das
Original Paper
  • 231 Downloads

Abstract

The paper deals with the study of the physical and dynamical characteristics of a severe thunderstorm, which had occurred on April 5, 2015, at about 2100 UTC in the southwestern Bangladesh with location around 23.3–23.7N and 89.0–89.4E within the upazilas (sub-districts) of Kumarkhali and Shailkupa under the districts of Kushtia and Jhenaidah, respectively. The thunderstorm was associated with numerous hails of large size. More than 5000 birds which used to live in the bird sanctuary at Shailkupa and 22,011 birds in Chhaglapara Bird Sanctuary of Kumarkhali died as they were hit by the hails. Large hails also damaged crops, houses and forests over the thunderstorm hit areas. The evolution of the thunderstorm is studied by the WRF model, which is initialized using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final reanalysis data of 0000 UTC of April 5, 2015. The simulated results provide a basis to study the physical and dynamical characteristics of the thunderstorm, which are generally not identified by the meteorological observations which are too sparse. The model has captured a micro-low over Kumarkhali and its neighborhood, which favored the occurrence of the severe thunderstorm. The model simulated rainfall is about 26 mm near the place of occurrence, which matches well with the area where the reflectivity of hydrometeor is maximum. The convective available potential energy is found to be 1600 J kg−1 at 1730 UTC near the place of occurrence of the thunderstorm; this indicates high atmospheric instability over the thunderstorm location for the formation of the thunderstorm. The vertical velocity, convergence, cloud water mixing ratio and the ice water mixing ratio and their vertical extensions are found to be satisfactory and responsible for the occurrence of large hails associated with the thunderstorm.

Keywords

Thunderstorm CAPE Vertical velocity Cloud water mixing ratio and ice water mixing ratio 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to express their sincere thanks and gratitude to the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, for approving and supporting the present research project with financial assistance. The authors would like to thank the Chairman of National Oceanographic and Maritime Institute (NOAMI) for providing necessary facilities to carry out the project work at NOAMI. The authors would like to thank BMD, SMRC and IWFM, BUET for providing necessary data and numerical supports for the study.

References

  1. Ahasan MN, Chowdhury MAM, Quadir DA (2014) Sensitivity test of parameterization schemes of MM5 model for prediction of the high impact rainfall events over Bangladesh. J Mech Eng 44(1):33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Basnayake BRSB, MK Das, Nessa FF, Rahman MM (2010) Nor’westers over Bangladesh and neighbourhood during pre-monsoon season of 2009: observations and WRF model simulations. SMRC report no. 36, p 58Google Scholar
  3. Byers HR, Braham RR (1949) The thunderstorms. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, p 287Google Scholar
  4. Das Y (2015) Some aspects of thunderstorm over India during pre-monsoon season: a preliminary report-I. J Geosci Geomat 3(3):68–78. doi: 10.12691/jgg-3-3-3 Google Scholar
  5. Das RC, Munim AA, Begum QN, Karmakar S (1994) A diagnostic study on some local severe storms over Bangladesh. J Bangladesh Acad Sci 18(1):81–92Google Scholar
  6. Das S, Ashrit R, Moncrieff MW (2006) Simulation of a Himalayan cloudburst event. J Earth Syst Sci 115(3):299–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Das MK, Karmakar MAM, Das S, Debsarma SK (2015a) Assimilation of Doppler weather radar data and their impacts on the simulation of squall events during pre-monsoon season. Nat Hazards 77(2):901–931. doi: 10.1007/s11069-015-1634-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Das MK, Someshwar Das M, Chowdhury AM, Karmakar S (2015b) Simulation of Tornado over Brahmanbaria on 22 March 2013 using Doppler Weather Radar and WRF Model. Geomat Nat Hazards Risk 7(5):1577–1599. doi: 10.1080/19475705.2015.1115432 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Das MK, Chowdhury M, Das S (2015c) Sensitivity Study with physical parameterization schemes for simulation of mesoscale convective systems associated with squall events. Int J Earth Atmos Sci 2(2):20–36Google Scholar
  10. Das S, Sarkar A, Das MK, Mizanur Rahman M, Nazrul Islam M (2015d) Composite characteristics of Nor’westers based on observations and simulations. Atmos Res 158–159:158–178. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Das S, Islam MN, Das MK (2016) Simulation of severe storms of tornadic intensity over Indo-Bangla region. Mausam 67(2):479–492Google Scholar
  12. Desai BN (1950) Mechanism of Nor’wester of Bengal. Indian J Meteorol Geophys 1:74–76Google Scholar
  13. Hong S-Y, Lim J-OJ (2006) The WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme (WSM6). J Korean Meteorol Soc 42:129–151Google Scholar
  14. Jayakrishnan P, Babu C (2014) Assessment of convective activity using stability indices as inferred from Radiosonde and MODIS data. Atmos Clim Sci 4(1):122–130. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.41014 Google Scholar
  15. Kain JS (2004) The Kain-Fritsch convective parameterization: an update. J Appl Meteorol 43:170–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Karmakar S (2001) Climatology of thunderstorm days over Bangladesh during the pre-monsoon season. Bangladesh J Sci Technol 3(1):103–112Google Scholar
  17. Karmakar S (2005) Study of nor’westers and development of prediction techniques in Bangladesh during the pre-monsoon season, Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Physics, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET)Google Scholar
  18. Karmakar S, Alam MM (2005a) On the probabilistic extremes of thunderstorm frequency over Bangladesh during the pre-monsoon season (SOHAM-Nepal). J Hydrol Meteorol 2(1):41–47Google Scholar
  19. Karmakar S, Alam MM (2005b) On the sensible energy, latent heat energy and potential energy of the troposphere over Dhaka before the occurrence of nor’westers in Bangladesh during the pre-monsoon season. Mausam 56(3):671–680Google Scholar
  20. Karmakar S, Alam MM (2006) Instability of the troposphere associated with thunderstorms/nor’westers over Bangladesh during the pre-monsoon season. Mausam 57(4):629–638Google Scholar
  21. Karmakar S, Alam MM (2007a) Tropospheric moisture and its relation with rainfall due to nor’westers in Bangladesh. Mausam 58(2):153–160Google Scholar
  22. Karmakar S, Alam MM (2007b) Interrelation among different instability indices of the troposphere over Dhaka associated with thunderstorms/nor’westers over Bangladesh during the pre-monsoon season. Mausam 58(3):361–368Google Scholar
  23. Karmakar S, Alam MM (2011) Modified instability index of the troposphere associated with thunderstorms/nor’westers over Bangladesh during the pre-monsoon season. Mausam 62(2):205–214Google Scholar
  24. Karmakar S, Quadir DA (2014) Study on the potential temperatures of the troposphere associated with local severe storms and their distribution over Bangladesh and neighbourhood during the pre-monsoon season. J Eng Sci 5(1):13–30Google Scholar
  25. Karmakar S, Das MK, Alam MR (2016a) Study on the predictability of physical and dynamical characteristics of the troposphere associate with Nor’wester using WRF model. A scientific report submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology. Government of Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, p 76Google Scholar
  26. Karmakar S, Quadir DA, Alam R, Das MK (2016b) Impact of a thunderstorm on the biodiversity and socio-economic conditions of the people in Kushtia and Jhenaidah districts in Bangladesh. J NOAMI 33(1&2) (accepted)Google Scholar
  27. Koteswaram P, Srinivasan V (1958) Thunderstorms over Gangetic West Bengal in the pre-monsoon season and the synoptic factors favourable for their formation. Indian J Met Geophys 9(4):301–312Google Scholar
  28. Litta AJ, Idicula SM, Mohanty UC (2011) A comparative study of convective parameterization schemes in WRF-NMM Model. Int J Comput Appl 33(6):32–40Google Scholar
  29. Litta AJ, Mohanty UC, Das S, Idicula SM (2012) Numerical simulation of severe local storms over east India using WRF–NMM mesoscale model. Atmos Res 116:161–184. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.04.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marshall JS, Palmer WMK (1948) The distribution of raindrops with size. J Meteorol 5:165–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Prasad K (2006) Environmental and synoptic conditions associated with Nor’westers and tornadoes in Bangladesh—an appraisal on numerical weather prediction (NWP) guidance products. SMRC report no. 14, p 74Google Scholar
  32. Prasad SK, Mohanty UC, Routray A, Osuri KK, Ramakrishna SSVS, Niyogi D (2014) Impact of Doppler weather radar data on thunderstorm simulation during STORM pilot phase—2009. Nat Hazards 74(3):1403–1427. doi: 10.1007/s11069-014-1250-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saha TR, Quadir DA (2016) Variability and trends of annual and seasonal thunderstorm frequency over Bangladesh. J Climatol Int. doi: 10.1002/joc.4663 Google Scholar
  34. Skamarock WC, Klemp JB, Dudhia J, Gill DO, Barker DM, Duda M, Huang X-Y, Wang W, Powers JG (2008) A description of the advanced research WRF version 3. NCAR technical note. www.wrf-model.org
  35. Srinivasan V, Ramamurthy K, Nene YR (1973) Summer Nor’westers and Andhi and large scale convective activity over peninsula and central parts of the country, forecasting manual, Part 3, India Meteorological DepartmentGoogle Scholar
  36. Tyagi A, Sikka DR, Suman G, Mansi B (2011a) A satellite based study of pre-monsoon thunderstorms (Nor’westers) over eastern India and their organization into mesoscale convective complexes. Mausam 63(1):29–54Google Scholar
  37. Tyagi B, Krishna VN, Satyanarayana ANV (2011b) Skill of thermodynamic indices for forecasting pre-monsoon thunderstorms over Kolkata during STORM pilot phase 2006–2008. Nat Hazards 56:681–698. doi: 10.1007/s11069-010-9582-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tyagi B, Satyanarayana ANV, Vissa NK (2013) Thermodynamical structure of atmosphere during pre-monsoon thunderstorm season over Kharagpur as revealed by STORM data. Pure Appl Geophys 170:675–687. doi: 10.1007/s00024-012-0566-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Weston KJ (1972) The dry line of northern India and its role in cumulonimbus convection. Q J R Meteorol Soc 98:519–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies (BCAS)DhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.National Oceanographic and Maritime Institute (NOAMI)DhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUttara UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  4. 4.Institute of Water and Flood Management (IWFM)BUETDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations