Natural Hazards

, Volume 86, Issue 3, pp 1127–1146 | Cite as

Numerical simulation of physical and dynamical characteristics associated with the severe thunderstorm on April 5, 2015 at Kushtia and Jhenaidah

  • Samarendra Karmakar
  • Dewan Abdul Quadir
  • Mohan Kumar Das
Original Paper


The paper deals with the study of the physical and dynamical characteristics of a severe thunderstorm, which had occurred on April 5, 2015, at about 2100 UTC in the southwestern Bangladesh with location around 23.3–23.7N and 89.0–89.4E within the upazilas (sub-districts) of Kumarkhali and Shailkupa under the districts of Kushtia and Jhenaidah, respectively. The thunderstorm was associated with numerous hails of large size. More than 5000 birds which used to live in the bird sanctuary at Shailkupa and 22,011 birds in Chhaglapara Bird Sanctuary of Kumarkhali died as they were hit by the hails. Large hails also damaged crops, houses and forests over the thunderstorm hit areas. The evolution of the thunderstorm is studied by the WRF model, which is initialized using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final reanalysis data of 0000 UTC of April 5, 2015. The simulated results provide a basis to study the physical and dynamical characteristics of the thunderstorm, which are generally not identified by the meteorological observations which are too sparse. The model has captured a micro-low over Kumarkhali and its neighborhood, which favored the occurrence of the severe thunderstorm. The model simulated rainfall is about 26 mm near the place of occurrence, which matches well with the area where the reflectivity of hydrometeor is maximum. The convective available potential energy is found to be 1600 J kg−1 at 1730 UTC near the place of occurrence of the thunderstorm; this indicates high atmospheric instability over the thunderstorm location for the formation of the thunderstorm. The vertical velocity, convergence, cloud water mixing ratio and the ice water mixing ratio and their vertical extensions are found to be satisfactory and responsible for the occurrence of large hails associated with the thunderstorm.


Thunderstorm CAPE Vertical velocity Cloud water mixing ratio and ice water mixing ratio 



The authors wish to express their sincere thanks and gratitude to the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, for approving and supporting the present research project with financial assistance. The authors would like to thank the Chairman of National Oceanographic and Maritime Institute (NOAMI) for providing necessary facilities to carry out the project work at NOAMI. The authors would like to thank BMD, SMRC and IWFM, BUET for providing necessary data and numerical supports for the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies (BCAS)DhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.National Oceanographic and Maritime Institute (NOAMI)DhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUttara UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  4. 4.Institute of Water and Flood Management (IWFM)BUETDhakaBangladesh

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