Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 86, Issue 3, pp 1081–1104 | Cite as

Cut slope stability assessment along ghat road section of Kolli hills, India

Original Paper

Abstract

In the present study, cut slope stability assessment along ghat road section of Kolli hills was carried out by using various geotechnical parameters of rock and soil slope sections and structural kinematics of major discontinuities is presented. The rock slope (RS) stability assessment was carried out using Rock Mass Rating basic (RMRbasic) and Slope Mass Rating (SMR) classification systems. The type of failure and their Factor of Safety (FOS) for individual RS was calculated using Hoek and Bray method. In the case of soil slopes (SS), the FOS was calculated using Circular Failure Chart (CFC) and Limit Equilibrium (LE) methods. The input data for the slope stability analyses were collected through extensive field work followed by stereonet plotting and laboratory test. There are six rock slope sections, and five soil slope sections were taken into consideration for the cut slope stability analyses. The area depicts class II (RS-1, 2, & 6) and class III (RS-3, 4, & 5) of RMR classes. The SMR result depicts for RS-1, RS-2, and RS-6 are 64.40, 60.02, and 60.70, respectively, and falls in class II stable condition. The SMR values of RS-3 and RS-5 were 44.33 and 57, respectively, and come under the class III partially stable condition. The RS-4 with SMR value of 17.33 falls under the class I completely unstable condition. The FOS of planar failure case indicates that RS-3 (FOS = 0.22) is more unstable, while all other sections are having greater than 1 FOS. The calculated FOS values using CFC method reveals that the FOS is very close to 1 for all the SS sections that fall under completely saturated condition which indicates that these slope sections may fail during heavy rainfall. In LE method, the sections SS-3 and SS-4 are unsafe under partially and completely saturated (natural slope) condition. In average slope condition, all the SS sections are unsafe under partially or completely saturated conditions. The facets 2, 3, 4, and 5 required mitigation measures, to improve the stability of slopes. Site-specific mitigation measures were suggested for partially or completely unstable rock and soil cut slopes.

Keywords

Cut slope stability Rock mass rating (RMR) Slope mass rating (SMR) Factor of safety (FOS) Circular failure chart (CFC) Limit equilibrium (LE) method Kolli hills 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the Natural Resources Data Management System (NRDMS), Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, for the financial support. The authors also thank State Highways and Horticulture departments for providing landslide event and rainfall data. We sincerely thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions, which helped us to improve the quality of the manuscript.

References

  1. Agam MW, Hashim MHM, Murad MI, Zabidi H (2016) Slope sensitivity analysis using Spencer’s method in comparison with general limit equilibrium method. Procedia Chem 19:651–658. doi: 10.1016/j.proche.2016.03.066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aleotti P, Chowdhury R (1999) Landslide hazard assessment: summary review and new perspectives. Bull Eng Geol Environ 58(1):21–44. doi: 10.1007/s100640050066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anbalagan R (1992) Landslide hazard evaluation and zonation mapping in mountainous terrain. Eng Geol 32:269–277. doi: 10.1016/0013-7952(92)90053-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anbalagan R, Kohli A, Chakraborty D (2008) Geotechnical evaluation of Harmony landslide on Karnaprayag-Gwaldam Road, Uttarakhand Himalaya. Curr Sci 94(12):1613–1619Google Scholar
  5. Anbazhagan S, Neelakantan R, Arivazhagan S, Vanaraju G (2008) Developments of fractures and land subsidence at Kolli hills, Tamil Nadu. J Geol Soc India 72:348–352Google Scholar
  6. Anbazhagan S, Ramesh V (2014) Landslide hazard zonation mapping in Ghat road section of Kolli hills, India. J Mt Sci 11(5):1308–1325. doi: 10.1007/s11629-012-2618-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bieniawski ZT (1973) Engineering classification of jointed rock masses. Trans S Afr Inst Civ Eng 15(12):335–344Google Scholar
  8. Bieniawski ZT (1976) Rock mass classification in rock engineering. In: Bieniawski ZT (ed) Exploration for rock engineering, proceedings of the symposium expl. Rock Engineering, Johannesburg, pp 97–106Google Scholar
  9. Bieniawski ZT (1979) The Geomechanics classification in rock engineering applications. In: Proceedings of the 4th international congress rock mechanics, Montreux, Balkema, Rotterdam, vol 2. pp 41–48Google Scholar
  10. Bieniawski ZT (1989) Engineering rock mass classifications. Wiley, Chichester, p 251Google Scholar
  11. Bishop AW (1955) The use of the slip circle in the stability analysis of slopes. Geotechnique 5(1):7–17. doi: 10.1680/geot.1955.5.1.7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bureau of Indian Standard (1986) IS: 2720 (Part 13), Methods for test for soils—direct shear test. BIS, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  13. Bureau of Indian Standard (1998a) IS: 13365 (Part 1), Quantitative classification systems of rock mass guidelines—rock mass rating (RMR) for predicting engineering properties. BIS, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  14. Bureau of Indian Standard (1998b) IS: 8764, Method for determination of point load strength index of rocks. BIS, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  15. Canal A, Akin M (2016) Assessment of rock slope stability by probabilistic-based slope stability probability classification method along highway cut slopes in Adilcevaz–Bitlis (Turkey). J Mt Sci 13(11):1893–1909. doi: 10.1007/s11629-016-3954-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen Z (1995) Recent developments in slope stability analysis. In: Fujii T (ed) Keynote lecture: Proceedings 8th International Congress in Rock Mechanics, vol 3. pp 1041–1048Google Scholar
  17. Cheng YM, Yip CJ (2007) Three-dimensional asymmetrical slope stability analysis extension of Bishop’s, Janbu’s, and Morgenstern-Price’s techniques. J Geotech Geoenvironmental Eng 133(12):1544–1555. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coates DF (1970) Rock mechanical principle. Department of energy, mines and resources, monograph 874, Canada, Chapter 6Google Scholar
  19. Daftaribesheli A, Ataei M, Sereshki F (2011) Assessment of rock slope stability using the fuzzy slope mass rating (FSMR) system. Appl Soft Comput 11(8):4465–4473. doi: 10.1016/j.asoc.2011.08.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Das I, Sahoo S, van Weston C, Stein A, Hack R (2010) Landslide susceptibility assessment using logistic regression and its comparison with a rock mass classification system, along a road section in the northern Himalayas (India). Geomorphology 114(4):627–637. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.09.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duncan JM (1996) Soil slope stability analysis in landslides: investigation and mitigation. In: Turner AK, Schuster RL (ed) Special report 247, Transportation research board. Washington, pp 337–371Google Scholar
  22. Fellenius W (1936) Calculation of the stability of earth dams. 2nd international congress on large dams, international commission on large dams, Washington, 445–459Google Scholar
  23. GSI Report (2006) Geology and mineral resources of the states of India. Part IV-Tamil Nadu and PondicherryGoogle Scholar
  24. Hack HR (1998) Slope stability probability classification, 2nd edn. ITC Delf Publication, ITC Enschede, Netherlands, p 273Google Scholar
  25. Haines A, Terbrugge PJ (1991) Preliminary estimation of rock slope stability using rock mass classification system. In: Wittke W (ed) Proceedings 7th congress on rock mechanics. ISRM, Rotterdam, pp 887–892Google Scholar
  26. Hoek E, Bray JW (1981) Rock slope engineering. Stephen Austin and Sons Limited Publishers, HertfordGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoek E, Bray JW, Boyd JM (1973) The stability of a rock slope containing a wedge resting on two intersecting discontinuities. Q J Eng Geol 6(1):1–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Janbu N (1968) Slope stability computations. (Geoteknikk, NTH). Soil mechanics and foundation engineering, technical university of NorwayGoogle Scholar
  29. Johari A, Mousavi S, Nejad AH (2015) A seismic slope stability probabilistic model based on Bishop’s method using analytical approach. Scientia Iran 22(3):728–741Google Scholar
  30. Laubscher DH (1990) A geomechanical classification system for the rating of rock mass in mine design. J S Afr Inst Min Metall 90(10):257–273Google Scholar
  31. Li XZ, Xu Q (2016) Application of the SSPC method in the stability assessment of highway rock slopes in the Yunnan province of China. Bull Eng Geol Environ 75(2):551–562. doi: 10.1007/s10064-015-0792-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lindsay P, Campbell RN, Fergusson DA, Gillard GR, Moore TA (2001) Slope stability probability classification, waikato coal measures, New Zeland. Int J Coal Geol 45:127–145. doi: 10.1016/S0166-5162(00)00028-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Low BK, Tang WH (1997) Probabilistic slope analysis using Janbu’s generalized procedure of slices. Comput Geotech 21(2):121–142. doi: 10.1016/S0266-352X(97)00019-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lowe J, Karafiath RV (1960) Stability of earth dam upon drawdown. Proceedings of the of the first pan american conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Maxico City, pp 537–552Google Scholar
  35. Moore JR, Sanders JW, Dietrich WE, Glaser SD (2009) Influence of rock mass strength on the erosion rate of alpine cliffs. Earth Surf Proc Land 34(10):1339–1352. doi: 10.1002/esp.1821 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morgenstern NR, Price VE (1965) The analysis of the stability of general slip surfaces. Geotechnique 15(1):79–93. doi:10.1680/geot.1965.15.1.79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pantelidis L (2009) Rock slope stability assessment through rock mass classification systems. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 46:315–325. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pantelidis L (2010) An alternative rock mass classification system for rock slopes. Bull Eng Geol Environ 69:29–39. doi: 10.1007/s10064-009-0241-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ramesh V, Anbazhagan S (2015) Landslide susceptibility mapping along Kolli hills Ghat road section (India) using frequency ratio, relative effect and fuzzy logic models. Environ Earth Sci 73(12):8009-8021. doi: 10.1007/s12665-014-3954-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Robertson AM (1988) Estimating weak rock strength. In: Sastry KVS (ed) Proceedings of the SME annual meeting. society of mining engineering, Phoenix, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  41. Romana M (1985) New adjustment ratings for application of Bieniawski classification to slopes. Proceedings of the international symposium on the role of rock mechanics in excavations for mining and civil works. International society of rock mechanics, Zacatecas, pp 49–53Google Scholar
  42. Romana M (1993) A geomechanical classification for slopes: slope mass rating. In: Hudson JA (ed) Comprehensive rock engineering. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 575–600Google Scholar
  43. Romana M, Serón JB, Montalar E (2001) La clasificación geomecánica SMR: aplicación experiencias y validación. In: CEDEX, UPM (eds) Proceedings of the V Simposio Nacional sobre taludes y laderas inestables. Centro de publicaciones, Secretaria General Técnica. Ministerio de Fomento, CEDEX, Madrid, pp 393–404 (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  44. Romana M, Serón JB, Montalar E (2003) SMR geomechanics classification: application, experience and validation. In: Merwe JN (ed) Proceedings of the 10th congress of the international society for rock mechanics, ISRM 2003—technology roadmap for rock mechanics. South African institute of mining and metallurgy, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  45. Romana M, Serón JB, Jordá L, Vélez MI (2005) La clasificación geomecánica SMR para taludes: Estado actual, aplicación y experiencia internacional. In: Corominas J, Alonso E, Romana M, Hürlimann M (eds) Proceedings of the VI Simposio Nacional sobre taludes y laderas inestables, Valencia, pp 239–250 (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  46. Sarkar K, Buragohain B, Singh TN (2016) Rock slope stability analysis along NH-44 in Sonapur area, Jaintia hills district, Meghalaya. J Geol Soc India 87(3):317–322. doi: 10.1007/s12594-016-0398-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Selby MJ (1980) A rock mass strength classification for geomorphic purposes: with test from Antarctica and New Zealand. Z für Geomorphol 24:31–51Google Scholar
  48. Sen Z, Sadagah H (2003) Modified rock mass classification system by continuous rating. Eng Geol 67:269–280. doi: 10.1016/S0013-7952(02)00185-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sharma RK, Mehta BS, Jamwal CS (2013) Cut slope stability evaluation of NH-21 along Natayan–Gambhrola section, Bilaspur district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Nat Hazards 66:249–270. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0469-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shuk T (1994) Key elements and applications of the natural slope methodology (NSM) with some emphasis on slope stability aspects. Proceedings of the 4th South American congress on rock mechanics, 2. ISRM, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 955–960Google Scholar
  51. Singh PK, Kainthola A, Singh TN (2013) Rock mass assessment along the right bank of river Sutlej, Luhri, Himachal Pradesh, India. Geomat Nat Hazards Risk. doi: 10.1080/19475705.2013.834486 Google Scholar
  52. Singh TN, Singh R, Singh B, Sharma LK, Singh R, Ansari MK (2016) Investigations and stability analyses of Malin village landslide of Pune district, Maharashtra, India. Nat Hazards 81(3):2019–2030. doi: 10.1007/s11069-016-2241-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spencer E (1967) A method of analysis of the stability of embankments, assuming parallel inter-slice forces. Geotechnique 17(1):11–26. doi: 10.1680/geot.1967.17.1.11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Taheri A, Tani K (2010) Assessment of the stability of rock slopes by the slope stability rating classification system. Rock Mech Rock Eng 43:321–333. doi: 10.1007/s00603-009-0050-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tomás R, Delgado J, Serón JB (2007) Modification of slope mass rating (SMR) by continuous functions. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44:1062–1069. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2007.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tomás R, Cuenca A, Cano M, Garcia-Barda J (2012) A graphical approach for slope mass rating (SMR). Eng Geol 124:67–76. doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Umrao RK, Singh R, Ahmad M, Singh TN (2011) Stability analysis of cut slopes using continuous slope mass rating and kinematic analysis in Rudraprayag district, Uttarakhand. Geomaterials 1(3):79–87. doi: 10.4236/gm.2011.13012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Unal E (1996) Modified rock mass classification: M-RMR system. In: Bieniawski ZT (ed) Milestones in rock engineering. The Bieniawski Jubilee Collection, Balkema, pp 203–223Google Scholar
  59. Wang J (2003) An analytical method of the stabilizing force of piles for landslide control using Janbu’s generalized procedure of slices. Chin J Geotech Eng 25(4):455–458Google Scholar
  60. Yilmaz I, Marschalko M, Bednarik M (2012) Comments on landslide susceptibility zonation study using remote sensing and GIS technology in the Ken-Betwa river link area, India by Avtar R, Singh CK, Singh G, Verma RL, Mukherjee S, Sawada H in Bulletin of engineering geology and the environment (doi: 10.1007/s10064-011-0368-5). pp 803–804. Bulletin of engineering geology and the environment 71:803–805. doi: 10.1007/s10064-011-0406-3

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for GeoinformaticsJamsetji Tata School of Disaster Studies (JTSDS), Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS)MumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Geoinformatics and Planetary Studies (CGIPS), Department of GeologyPeriyar UniversitySalemIndia
  3. 3.School of Civil EngineeringSASTRA UniversityTanjoreIndia

Personalised recommendations