Natural Hazards

, Volume 85, Issue 1, pp 87–109 | Cite as

Integrated rainfall–runoff and flood inundation modeling for flash flood risk assessment under data scarcity in arid regions: Wadi Fatimah basin case study, Saudi Arabia

  • Amro Elfeki
  • Milad Masoud
  • Burhan Niyazi
Original Paper


This paper presents a proposed integrated approach for flood hazardous evaluation in arid and semi-arid areas. Wadi Fatimah in Saudi Arabia is utilized for implementation of such an approach. The approach consists of four stages. In the first stage, a statistical analysis of rainfall data is performed to determine the design storms at specified return periods. In the second stage, geological and geomorphologic analyses are followed to estimate the geomorphic parameters. The third stage concerned with land use and land cover analyses linked with hydrological analysis to estimate the hydrographs. The fourth stage is related to the delineation of the inundation area under two scenarios: the presence and absence of the dam. The statistical analysis proved that some rainfall stations do not follow a Gumbel distribution. The presence of the dam reduces the inundation depth by about 10 %. The reduction in the inundation area due the presence of the dam is about 25 %.


Rainfall–runoff modeling Inundation modeling Statistical analysis Flash flood Wadi Fatimah Protection dams Data scarcity Reservoir routing Elevation–capacity curve 



This project was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, under Grant No. 416/155/1434. The authors, therefore, acknowledge with thanks DSR technical and financial support.

Supplementary material

11069_2016_2559_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 2792 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land AgricultureKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Water Research CenterKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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