Natural Hazards

, Volume 84, Supplement 1, pp 399–410 | Cite as

Indirect carbon emissions from household consumption between China and the USA: based on an input–output model

  • Xiao-Wei Ma
  • Jia Du
  • Meng-Ying Zhang
  • Yi Ye
Original Paper


Based on an input–output model, this paper calculates carbon emissions from household energy consumption in 2002, 2005, 2007, and 2010 between China and the USA. By a comparative analysis of the two countries, the results indicate the following: (1) In terms of the total household indirect carbon emissions, the USA has always been at a higher level than China. However, in recent years, China has presented a rapidly rising trend. In contrast, the USA appears to be experiencing a downward trend. (2) Indirect carbon emissions from USA household consumption mainly focus on Residence; Education, Culture, and Recreation; and Transport and Communications. By comparison, residence accounts for 50 % of China’s household indirect carbon emissions, and seven other sectors are much less than the USA (3) Although the number of China’s household facilities is growing rapidly, the carbon emissions remain at a relatively steady level. (4) In terms of the absolute value of the indirect carbon emissions from housing, the USA maintains a steady 400 million ton, while China increased from 150 to 500 million ton over 2002–2010.


Indirect CO2 emissions Household energy consumption Industrial distribution IO method 



This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Reference Nos. 71573015, 71303019 and 71521002). The authors would like to express their gratitude to Prof. Yiming Wei for his comments and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao-Wei Ma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jia Du
    • 1
    • 2
  • Meng-Ying Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yi Ye
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Energy and Environmental Policy ResearchBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Management and EconomicsBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina

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