Natural Hazards

, Volume 77, Issue 3, pp 1903–1914 | Cite as

Arsenic and fluorine in groundwater in western Jilin Province, China: occurrence and health risk assessment

  • B. Jianmin
  • W. Yu
  • Z. Juan
Original Paper


In this paper, the triangular fuzzy numbers theory is introduced to health risk assessment. On the basis of defining the parameters as triangular fuzzy numbers, uncertain models were established. As a case study, the fuzzy models were applied to evaluate the health risk of arsenic and fluorine in groundwater in western Jilin Province. The evaluation results indicated that there was great carcinogenic risk of arsenic in Quaternary phreatic water, Quaternary confined water, and Tertiary confined water, and the most probable risk values were 20.94 × 10−5, 55.22 × 10−5, and 24.02 × 10−5 a−1, respectively; all of these values are greater than 5.0 × 10−5 a−1, the acceptable maximum value recommended by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The most probable risk values of fluorine in Quaternary phreatic water, Quaternary confined water, and Tertiary confined water were 3.64 × 10−8, 2.48 × 10−8, and 2.17 × 10−8 a−1, respectively, all of which are less than the acceptable maximum value recommended by IARC. The assessment results showed that groundwater in the study area posed great health risks, and the fuzzy models reveal the health risk state of hazardous substances in groundwater more scientifically than traditional models.


Arsenic in groundwater Health risks Risk assessment Triangular fuzzy number 



This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41072255), Jilin Natural Science Foundation (201115035), and the Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment of the Ministry of Education.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of EducationJilin UniversityChangchunChina

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