Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 73, Issue 2, pp 403–425 | Cite as

An integrated flood inundation model for coastal urban watershed of Navi Mumbai, India

  • A. T. Kulkarni
  • T. I. Eldho
  • E. P. Rao
  • B. K. Mohan
Original Paper

Abstract

Most urban agglomerations located in the Mumbai coastal region in India are vulnerable to flooding due to increasing frequency of the short-duration heavy rainfall, by virtue of their location at foothills on one side and tidal variations on the other side. Steep slopes in the catchment ensure fast runoff and tidal variation adds to backwater effect in the drainage system, which together are favorable for flooding. The present study simulates the flood inundation due to heavy rainfall and high-tide conditions in a coastal urban catchment within Mumbai region with detention pond. Overland flow is modeled using a mass balance approach, which can adapt to hilly slopes and smoothly accommodate detention pond hydraulics. Dynamic wave channel routing based on finite element method captures the backwater effects due to tidal variation, and raster-based flood inundation model enables direct use of digital elevation model. The integrated model is capable of simulating detention pond hydraulics within the raster flood model for heavy rainfall events. The database required for the model is obtained from the geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing techniques. Application of the integrated model to literature problems and the catchment of the study area for two non-flooding events gave satisfactory results. Further, the model is applied to an extreme rainfall event of July 26, 2005, coinciding with high-tide conditions, which revealed vulnerability of the area to flooding despite of an existing detention pond. A sensitivity analysis on the location of detention pond indicated that catchment response can be better governed by relocating the detention pond to upstream of existing detention pond especially when heavy rainfall events are becoming frequent.

Keywords

Mass balance approach Raster flood model Tidal modeling Detention pond Finite element method 

List of symbols

A

Area of flow in channel

Ap

Area of the pond

Ao

Area of sub-grid

ap

Area of outlet pipe of pond

Cd

Coefficient of discharge of pipe

g

Acceleration due to gravity

Hts

Tidal stage

Htsm

Mean tidal stage

Htsr

Half oscillation range

hd

Discharge head above the outlet of the pond

ho

Overland flow depth

hc

Depth of flow in channel

hi,j

Free water surface elevation

hip

Invert level of discharge outlet of pond

hp

Water level in pond

htl

Tail water level in the pond

Io

Inflow into sub-area

L

Channel element length

N1, N2

Shape function for linear line element

nch

Manning’s channel roughness

nfp

Manning’s roughness value in floodplain

ηo

Manning’s roughness value for overland flow grid

Q

Discharge in channel

Qin

Inflow into pond

Qout

Outflow from pond

Qup

Flux in up direction

q

Overland flow

R

Channel hydraulic radius

r

Rainfall intensity

Sc

Channel bed slope

So

Slope of sub-grid of overland flow

tp

Time period of one tidal cycle

\(V_{i,j}^{\text{t}}\)

Volume of water

Vp

Volume of storage in pond

vx

Velocity component of lateral discharge

Δt

Time step

ΔVo

Increment in storage of grid

Δx

Linear dimension of cell

Subscripts

i

Row position

j

Column position

Superscript

t

Time level

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge their sincere gratitude to Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India, New Delhi for sponsoring the present study through 09DST033 project. The authors thank the engineers of CIDCO for providing data of the study area. The authors also thank the reviewer/s for their suggestions.

References

  1. Akan AO (1990) Single outlet detention pond analysis and design. J Irrig Drain Eng 116:527–536. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1990)116:4(527) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aral MM, Zhang Y, Jin S (1998) Application of relaxation scheme to wave-propagation simulation in open-channel networks. J Hydraul Eng 124:1125–1133. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1998)124:11(1125) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aronica GT, Lanza LG (2005) Drainage efficiency in urban areas: a case study. Hydrol Process 19:1105–1119. doi: 10.1002/hyp.5648 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates P, De Roo AP (2000) A simple raster-based model for flood inundation simulation. J Hydrol 236:54–77. doi: 10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00278-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates PD, Horritt MS, Fewtrell TJ (2010) A simple inertial formulation of the shallow water equations for efficient two-dimensional flood inundation modelling. J Hydrol 387:33–45. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.03.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradbrook KF, Lane SN, Waller SG, Bates PD (2004) Two dimensional diffusion wave modelling of flood inundation using simplified channel representation. Int J River Basin Manag 2:211–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen AS, Evans B, Djordjević S, Savić DA (2012) A coarse-grid approach to representing building blockage effects in 2D urban flood modelling. J Hydrol 426–427:1–16. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.01.007 Google Scholar
  8. Chow V, Maidment DR, Mays LW (1988) Applied hydrology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. CIDCO (2007) Velocity and tidal water level observation in Panvel creek for 1-D and 2-D mathematical model study for development of Navi Mumbai international airport. Navi Mumbai (unpublished)Google Scholar
  10. Cunge JA, Holly FM, Verwey A (1980) Practical aspects of computational river hydraulics. Pitman Advanced Publishing Program, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Desai YM, Eldho TI, Shah AH (2011) Finite element method with applications in engineering. Pearson Education, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  12. Djordjević S, Prodanović D, Maksimović C et al (2005) SIPSON–simulation of interaction between pipe flow and surface overland flow in networks. Water Sci Technol 52:275–283Google Scholar
  13. El Kadi AK, Paquier A, Mignot E (2008) Modelling flash flood propagation in urban areas using a two-dimensional numerical model. Nat Hazards 50:433–460. doi: 10.1007/s11069-008-9300-0 Google Scholar
  14. Hsu M, Chen S, Chang T (2000) Inundation simulation for urban drainage basin with storm sewer system. J Hydrol 234:21–37. doi: 10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00237-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hunter NM, Bates PD, Neelz S et al (2008) Benchmarking 2D hydraulic models for urban flooding. Proc Inst Civ Eng Water Manag 161:13–30. doi: 10.1680/wama.2008.161.1.13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jaber FH, Mohtar RH (2003) Stability and accuracy of two-dimensional kinematic wave overland flow modeling. Adv Water Resour 26:1189–1198. doi: 10.1016/S0309-1708(03)00102-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jenamani R, Bhan S, Kalsi S (2006) Observational/forecasting aspects of the meteorological event that caused a record highest rainfall in Mumbai. Curr Sci 90:1344–1362Google Scholar
  18. Kulkarni AT, Mohanty J, Eldho TI et al (2014) A web GIS based integrated flood assessment modeling tool for coastal urban watersheds. Comput Geosci 64:7–14. doi: 10.1016/j.cageo.2013.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leopardi A, Oliveri E, Greco M (2002) Two-dimensional modeling of floods to map risk-prone areas. J Water Resour Plan Manag 128:168–178. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(2002)128:3(168) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lhomme J, Sayers P, Gouldby B, et al. (2008) Reccent development and application of a rapid flood spreading method. In: Samuels P, Huntington S, Allsop William HJ (eds) FLOODRisk 2008, 2009th ed. Oxford, pp 15–24Google Scholar
  21. Maksimović C, Prodanovic D, Boonya-Aroonet S, Leitao J, Djordjevic Slobodan AR (2009) Overland flow and pathway analysis for modelling of urban pluvial flooding. J Hydraul Res 47:512–523. doi: 10.3826/jhr2009.3361 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McMillan HK, Brasington J (2007) Reduced complexity strategies for modelling urban floodplain inundation. Geomorphology 90:226–243. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.10.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mignot E, Paquier A, Haider S (2006) Modeling floods in a dense urban area using 2D shallow water equations. J Hydrol 327:186–199. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.11.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moussa R, Bocquillon C (2009) On the use of the diffusive wave for modelling extreme flood events with overbank flow in the floodplain. J Hydrol 374:116–135. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Muralikrishnan S, Pillai A, Narender B et al (2012) Validation of Indian National DEM from Cartosat-1 Data. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 41:1–13. doi: 10.1007/s12524-012-0212-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Naidu V, Sarma R (2001) Numerical modeling of tide-induced currents in Thane Creek, west coast of India. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 127:241–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Natu SV, Kulkarni RG, Vaidyaraman P, et al. (1992) Technical expert’s committee for total review of storm water drainage system designed at various nodes in New Bombay and to suggest remedial measures to avoid flooding. 123 (unpublished)Google Scholar
  28. Schubert JE, Sanders BF (2012) Building treatments for urban flood inundation models and implications for predictive skill and modeling efficiency. Adv Water Resour 41:49–64. doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Seyoum SD, Vojinovic Z, Price RK, Weesakul S (2012) Coupled 1D and noninertia 2D flood inundation model for simulation of urban flooding. J Hydraul Eng 138:23–34. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shahapure SS, Eldho TI, Rao EP (2010) Coastal urban flood simulation using FEM, GIS and remote sensing. Water Resour Manag 24:3615–3640. doi: 10.1007/s11269-010-9623-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shahapure SS, Eldho TI, Rao EP (2011) Flood simulation in an urban catchment of Navi Mumbai City with detention pond and tidal effects using FEM, GIS, and remote sensing. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 137:286–299. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)WW.1943-5460.0000093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vieux BE (2001) Distributed hydrologic modeling using GIS. Kluwer Academic Publishers, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wadey MP, Nicholls RJ, Haigh I (2013) Understanding a coastal flood event: the 10th March 2008 storm surge event in the Solent, UK. Nat Hazards 67:829–854. doi: 10.1007/s11069-013-0610-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yin J, Yu D, Yin Z et al (2012) Multiple scenario analyses of Huangpu River flooding using a 1D/2D coupled flood inundation model. Nat Hazards 66:577–589. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0501-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yu D, Lane SN (2006) Urban fluvial flood modelling using a two-dimensional diffusion-wave treatment, part 1: mesh resolution effects. Hydrol Process 20:1541–1565. doi: 10.1002/hyp.5935 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zerger A, Wealands S (2004) Beyond modelling: linking models with GIS for flood risk management. Nat Hazards 33:191–208. doi: 10.1023/B:NHAZ.0000037040.72866.92 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. T. Kulkarni
    • 1
  • T. I. Eldho
    • 1
  • E. P. Rao
    • 1
  • B. K. Mohan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Centre of Studies in Resources EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations