Natural Hazards

, Volume 73, Issue 2, pp 403–425 | Cite as

An integrated flood inundation model for coastal urban watershed of Navi Mumbai, India

  • A. T. Kulkarni
  • T. I. Eldho
  • E. P. Rao
  • B. K. Mohan
Original Paper


Most urban agglomerations located in the Mumbai coastal region in India are vulnerable to flooding due to increasing frequency of the short-duration heavy rainfall, by virtue of their location at foothills on one side and tidal variations on the other side. Steep slopes in the catchment ensure fast runoff and tidal variation adds to backwater effect in the drainage system, which together are favorable for flooding. The present study simulates the flood inundation due to heavy rainfall and high-tide conditions in a coastal urban catchment within Mumbai region with detention pond. Overland flow is modeled using a mass balance approach, which can adapt to hilly slopes and smoothly accommodate detention pond hydraulics. Dynamic wave channel routing based on finite element method captures the backwater effects due to tidal variation, and raster-based flood inundation model enables direct use of digital elevation model. The integrated model is capable of simulating detention pond hydraulics within the raster flood model for heavy rainfall events. The database required for the model is obtained from the geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing techniques. Application of the integrated model to literature problems and the catchment of the study area for two non-flooding events gave satisfactory results. Further, the model is applied to an extreme rainfall event of July 26, 2005, coinciding with high-tide conditions, which revealed vulnerability of the area to flooding despite of an existing detention pond. A sensitivity analysis on the location of detention pond indicated that catchment response can be better governed by relocating the detention pond to upstream of existing detention pond especially when heavy rainfall events are becoming frequent.


Mass balance approach Raster flood model Tidal modeling Detention pond Finite element method 

List of symbols


Area of flow in channel


Area of the pond


Area of sub-grid


Area of outlet pipe of pond


Coefficient of discharge of pipe


Acceleration due to gravity


Tidal stage


Mean tidal stage


Half oscillation range


Discharge head above the outlet of the pond


Overland flow depth


Depth of flow in channel


Free water surface elevation


Invert level of discharge outlet of pond


Water level in pond


Tail water level in the pond


Inflow into sub-area


Channel element length

N1, N2

Shape function for linear line element


Manning’s channel roughness


Manning’s roughness value in floodplain


Manning’s roughness value for overland flow grid


Discharge in channel


Inflow into pond


Outflow from pond


Flux in up direction


Overland flow


Channel hydraulic radius


Rainfall intensity


Channel bed slope


Slope of sub-grid of overland flow


Time period of one tidal cycle


Volume of water


Volume of storage in pond


Velocity component of lateral discharge


Time step


Increment in storage of grid


Linear dimension of cell



Row position


Column position



Time level



The authors acknowledge their sincere gratitude to Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India, New Delhi for sponsoring the present study through 09DST033 project. The authors thank the engineers of CIDCO for providing data of the study area. The authors also thank the reviewer/s for their suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. T. Kulkarni
    • 1
  • T. I. Eldho
    • 1
  • E. P. Rao
    • 1
  • B. K. Mohan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Centre of Studies in Resources EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

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