Natural Hazards

, Volume 70, Issue 2, pp 1535–1552 | Cite as

Characterization and source of fog water contaminants in central India

  • Balram Ambade
Original Paper


In the present work, chemical characterization and sources of fog water contaminants in the most polluted area of central India, Raipur, and its surroundings are described. The fog water (n = 22) was collected during 2010–2011 from six sites. The physical (i.e., pH, fog amount, electrical conductivity and TDS) and chemical (i.e., F, Cl, NO3 , SO4 2−, NH4 +, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg) parameters of the fog water were investigated. The effect of meteorology, i.e., temperature, humidity and wind speed, on the precipitation of the fog water contaminants is discussed. The cluster and factor analysis are used to apportion the sources of the contaminants in the fog water.


Fog water Chemical characterization Sources Central India 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryNational Institute of TechnologyJamshedpurIndia

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