Modeling of inundation dynamics on Banda Aceh, Indonesia during the great Sumatra tsunamis December 26, 2004
The tsunami inundation flows on Banda Aceh, Indonesia reached 5 km inland during the December 26, 2004, event and devastated most of the houses, buildings, and infrastructure along the coast and killed more than 167,000 people. The overland flows from the northwest coast and the west coast collided at Lampisang village approximately 3.7 km from Ulee Lheue (northwest coast) and 6.8 km from Lhok Nga (west coast) as reported by survivors. Inundation modeling based on the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations reproduces the inundation pattern and demonstrates a colliding of the overland flows. The model suggests that wave characteristics on the northwest coast of Banda Aceh were different from those on the waves that impacted upon the west coast. The areas, which experienced higher inundation levels, did not always experience greatest overland flow speeds, and the damage areas mostly coincide with the flow speed distribution rather than the runup and inundation depth.
KeywordsTsunami Banda Aceh Inundation model
The authors wish to thank anonymous reviewer for a critical review and valuable inputs and comments that improved the manuscript considerably. The numerical model research work had been funded through NZIDRS, New Zealand and the fieldwork funded partly by Tsunami Research Foundation––Indonesia, USGS––NOAA on ITST 1–2. Thanks to Drs. Rahman Hidayat, Dinar C Istiyanto, Widjo Kongko, Lukianto and all ITST Sumatra 2004 team for providing the fieldwork data.
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