Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 261–272 | Cite as

The Laalam (Algeria) damaging landslide triggered by a moderate earthquake (Mw = 5.2)

  • Y. Bouhadad
  • A. Benhamouche
  • H. Bourenane
  • A. Ait Ouali
  • M. Chikh
  • N. Guessoum
Original Paper

Abstract

On March 20th, 2006, a moderate earthquake (Mw = 5.2) struck the Laalam (NE-Algeria). The damage was centred in the Laalam village where four deaths, 68 injured and more than 40 housing units destroyed making dozens of peoples homeless. Damage and casualties are directly related to an earthquake-induced landslide occurred at 10 km far from the epicenter (ISC relocation). The landslide rupture, mapped by using a ground based survey, is striking NE-SW along a 1-km length rupture with a 45 cm of lateral displacement. The rupture plan is dipping 40° at the surface and showing horizontal striations. A 75 cm of pre-2006 lateral displacement is also observed indicating a repetitive behaviour of the landslide. The last time where the landslide was activated extends back to 1974 following another moderate earthquake. This landslide reminds us the high level hazard of induced ground failures due slope instabilities in mountainous zones of seismically active areas.

Keywords

Algeria Earthquake Landslide Damaging Induced hazards 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Pr. J.J. Bommer and Pr. T. Glade for their valuable remarks. We thank also Dr. Maouche S from CRAAG for his suggestions.

References

  1. Ambraseys NN, Vogt J (1988) Material for the investigation of the seismicity of the region of Algiers. Euro Earth Eng 3:16–29Google Scholar
  2. Argus DF, Gordon RG, De Mets C, Stein S (1989) Closure of the Africa-Eurasia-North America plate motion circuit and tectonics of the Gloria fault. J Geophys Res 94:5585–5602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benouar D (1994) Material for the investigation of the seismicity of Algeria and adjacent regions during the twentieth century. Annali di geofisica XXXVII (4):860 pGoogle Scholar
  4. Bird JF, Bommer JJ (2004) Earthquake losses due to ground failure. Eng Geol 75(2):147–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bommer JJ, Rodriguez CE (2002) Earthquakes- induced landslides in Central America. Eng Geol 63(3/4):189–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouhadad Y (2001) The Murdjadjo, western Algeria, fault-related fold: implication for seismic hazard. J Seismol 5:541–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouhadad Y et al (2003) The Beni-Ourtilane-Tachaouaft fault and seismotectonic aspects of the Babor region (NE of Algeria). J Seismol 7:79–88Google Scholar
  8. Bouhadad Y, Nour A, Slimani A, Laouami N, Belhai D (2004) The Boumerdes (Algeria) earthquake of May 21, 2003 (MW = 6.8): ground deformation and intensity. J Seismol 8:497–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Mets C, Gordon RC, Argus DF, Stein S (1990) Current plate motion. Geophys J Intern 101:425–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deverchère J, Yelles K, Domzig A, Mercier de Lépinay B, Bouillin JP, Gaullier V, Bracène R, Calais E, Savoye B, Kherroubi A, Le Roy P, Pauc H, Dan G (2005) Active thrust faulting offshore Boumerdes, Algeria, and its relations to the 2003 Mw 6.9 earthquake. Geopys Res Lett 32:L04311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El Robrini M (1986) Evolution morphostructurale de la marge structurale algérienne occidentale (Méditerranée occidentale): influence de la tectonique et de la sédimentation. Thèse d’Etat. Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris IV, 164 pGoogle Scholar
  12. Gabert P (1984) Séismes, néotectoniques et effets induits sur les versants des massifs des Babors dans la région de Kherrata (Algérie). Revue géographique des pays méditerranéens 1:25–32Google Scholar
  13. Harbi A, Maouche S, Ayadi A (1999) Neotectonics and associated seismicity in the Eastern Tellean Atlas of Algeria. J Seismol 3:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hevenith HB, Strom A, Jongmans D, Abdrakhmatov K, Delvaux D, Trfois P (2003) Seismic triggering landslides, part A: field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 3:135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Keefer DK (1984) Landslides caused by earthquakes. Bull Geol Soc Am 95:406–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Keefer DK, Wartman J, Ochoa CN, Rodriguez-Marek A, Wieczorek GF (2006) Landslides caused by the M 7.6 Tecoman, Mexico, earthquake of January 21, 2003. Eng Geol 86:183–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Machane D, Bouhadad Y, Chikhlounis G, Chatelain JL, Oubaiche EH, Abbes K, Guillier B, Bensalem R (2008) Examples of geomorphologic and geological hazards in Algeria. Nat Hazards 45(2):295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Meghraoui M (1988) Géologie des zones sismiques de l’Algérie du Nord: Paléosismologie, tectonique active et Synthèse sismotectonique. Thèse Es Sci, 356 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Meghraoui M (1991) Blind reverse faulting system associated with the Mont Chenoua-Tipaza earthquake of October 29, 1988 (north central Algeria). Terra Nova 3:84–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Meghraoui M, Morel JL, Andrieux J, Dahmani M (1996) Tectonique plio-quaternaire de la chaine tello-rifaine et de la mer d’Alboran. Une zone complexe de convergence continent–continent. Bull Soc Géol Fr 1:141–157Google Scholar
  21. Meghraoui M, Maouche S, Chemaa B, Cakir Z, Aoudia A, Harbi A, Alasset PJ, Bouhadad Y, Benhamouda F (2004) Coastal uplift and thrust faulting associated with the (Mw = 6.8) ZEMMOURI (Algeria) earthquake of 21 May, 2003. Geophys Res Lett 31:L19605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mokrane A, Ait Messaoud A, Sebai A, Menia N, Ayadi A, Bezzeghoud M (1994) Les séismes en Algérie de 1365–1992, CRRAG, Alger, supervised by Bezzeghoud M and Benhallou H, 227 pGoogle Scholar
  23. Nocquet JM, Calais E (2004) Geodetic measurements of crustal deformation in the western Mediterranean and Europe. Pure Appl Geopys 161:661–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Owen LA, Kamp U, Khattak GA, Harp EL, Keefer DK, Bauer MA (2008) Landslides triggered by the 8 October Kashmir earthquake. Geomorphology 94:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Philip H, Meghraoui M (1983) Structural analysis and interpretation of the surface deformation of the El Asnam earthquake of October 10, 1980. Tectonics 2(1):17–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rodriguez CE, Bommer JJ, Chandler RJ (1999) Earthquake induced landslides: 1980–1997. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 18:325–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rothe JP (1950) Les séismes de Kerrata et la séismicité de l’Algérie. Bull Ser De la carte géologique de L’Algérie, pp 16–17Google Scholar
  28. Rothe JP, Lepvrier C, Truillet R (1977) Les déformations liées au séisme de 1954 d’El-Asnam (ex- Orléanville- Algérie). Bull Soc Géol Fr 7(3):641–644Google Scholar
  29. Sassa K, Fukuoka H, Wang F, Wang S (2005) Dynamic properties of earthquakes—induced large scale landslides within past landslides mass. Landslides 2:125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vogt J (1984) Mouvements de terrain associes aux séismes en Afrique du nord. Revue géographique des pays méditerranéens ½:43–48Google Scholar
  31. Wang HB, Sassa K, Xu WY (2007) Analysis of a spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the 2004 Chuestsu earthquake of Niigata prefecture, Japan. Nat Hazards 41:43–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Bouhadad
    • 1
  • A. Benhamouche
    • 1
  • H. Bourenane
    • 1
  • A. Ait Ouali
    • 1
  • M. Chikh
    • 1
  • N. Guessoum
    • 1
  1. 1.National Center of Applied Research in Earthquake Engineering (CGS)AlgiersAlgeria

Personalised recommendations