Journal of Neurocytology

, Volume 34, Issue 3–5, pp 269–293 | Cite as

Induced and constitutive heat shock protein expression in the olfactory system—A review, new findings, and some perspectives

  • Virginia McMillan Carr


Heat shock, or stress, proteins (HSPs) are cellular proteins induced in response to conditions that cause protein denaturation, and their induction is essential for survival of such conditions. In the olfactory system we have found intense HSP expression occurs during normal processing of environmental odorants/inhalants as well as following hyperthermia and drug exposure. The HSPs involved include ubiquitin, HSP70, HSC70, and HSP25. Responses are both cell type- and stress-specific, occurring primarily in olfactory supporting cells and to some extent in Bowman’s gland acinar cells. Responses to these stresses are not seen in olfactory sensory neurons. This article reviews those studies and the significance of their findings. It also discusses a distinct subpopulation of rat olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the 2A4(+)OSNs, found to be constitutively reactive with HSP70, the predominantly stress-inducible isoform of the 70 kD HSP family. Their high HSP70 expression appears to confer on the 2A4(+)OSNs an enhanced ability to survive damage-induced OSN turnover. New findings are also presented on HSP25-specific changes following olfactory bulbectomy. All data are discussed in the context of the overall olfactory and bioprotective functions of the olfactory mucosa.


Heat Shock Protein Olfactory Bulb Olfactory Epithelium Olfactory System Heat Shock Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology and PhysiologyNorthwestern UniversityEvanston
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern UniversityChicago

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