Protective Effects of Cornel Iridoid Glycoside in Rats After Traumatic Brain Injury
Cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) is the active ingredient extracted from Cornus officinalis. Our previous studies showed that CIG had protective effects on several brain injury models. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects and elucidate the mechanisms of CIG against traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI was induced in the right cerebral cortex of male adult rats. The neurological and cognitive functions were evaluated by modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and object recognition test (ORT), respectively. The level of serum S100β was measured by an ELISA method. Nissl staining was used to estimate the neuron survival in the brain. The expression of proteins was determined by western blot and/or immunohistochemical staining. We found that intragastric administration of CIG in TBI rats ameliorated the neurological defects and cognitive impairment, and alleviated the neuronal loss in the injured brain. In the acute stage of TBI (24–72 h), CIG decreased the level of S100β in the serum and brain, increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and decreased the expression of caspase-3 in the injured cortex. Moreover, the treatment with CIG for 30 days increased the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), enhanced the expression of synapsin I, synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and inhibited the apoptosis-regulating factors in the chronic stage of TBI. The present study demonstrated that CIG had neuroprotective effects against TBI through inhibiting apoptosis in the acute stage and promoting neurorestoration in the chronic stage. The results suggest that CIG may be beneficial to TBI therapy.
KeywordsCornel iridoid glycoside Traumatic brain injury Behavior impairment Apoptosis Neurotrophic factor Synaptic protein
This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81273498, 81341087, 81473373); National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC0103909); Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission project (Z161100000516008); Beijing High-level Health and Technical Personal Plan (2011-1-7, 2014-2-014).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest associated with this manuscript.
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