Rolipram Attenuates Early Brain Injury Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possibly via Regulating the SIRT1/NF-κB Pathway
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Early brain injury (EBI) is the primary cause of poor outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Rolipram, a specific phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor which is traditionally used as an anti-depressant drug, has been recently proven to exert neuroprotective effects in several central nervous system insults. However, the role of rolipram in SAH remains uncertain. The current study was aimed to investigate the role of rolipram in EBI after SAH and explore the potential mechanism. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation process to produce an SAH model. Rolipram was injected intraperitoneally at 2 h after SAH with a dose of 10 mg/kg. We found that rolipram significantly ameliorated brain edema and alleviated neurological dysfunction after SAH. Rolipram treatment remarkably promoted the expression of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) while inhibited NF-κB activation. Moreover, rolipram significantly inhibited the activation of microglia as well as down-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. In addition, rolipram increased the expression of protective cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, rolipram significantly alleviated neuronal death after SAH. In conclusion, these data suggested that rolipram exerts neuroprotective effects against EBI after SAH via suppressing neuroinflammation and reducing neuronal loss. The neuroprotective effects of rolipram were associated with regulating the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway. Rolipram could be a novel and promising therapeutic agent for SAH treatment.
KeywordsSubarachnoid hemorrhage Early brain injury Rolipram Inflammation Sirtuin 1 NF-κB
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81400951, No. 81571106).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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