Acetate Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production Through an Anti-Oxidative Mechanism in Cultured Primary Rat Astrocytes
The biomolecule acetate can be utilized for energy production, lipid synthesis, and several metabolic processes. Acetate supplementation reduces neuroglial activation in a model of neuroinflammation induced by intraventricular injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of acetate on glial cells, we examined the effect of acetate on nitric oxide (NO) production, which was experimentally activated by LPS, in cultured primary rat astrocytes. Acetate attenuated the LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner, although cell viability was not affected. Acetate suppressed the phosphorylation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase 24 h after LPS treatment. Acetate decreased the LPS-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at 4–24 h concomitant with an increase in glutathione. Acetate rescued astrocytes from the hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death by reducing ROS levels. These findings suggest that attenuation of NO production by acetate may alleviate glial cell damage during neuroinflammation. Acetate may offer a glioprotective effect through an anti-oxidative mechanism.
KeywordsAcetate Oxidative stress Neuroinflammation Glioprotection
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium
Fetal bovine serum
Inducible nitric oxide synthase
Mitogen-activated protein kinase
NF-E2-related factor 2
Reactive oxygen species
This work was supported by a grant from the KIEIKAI Research Foundation (to M. M.) and by JSPS KAKENHI Grant numbers 26450447 (to M. M.) and 15 K07768 (to Y. N.).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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