Dietary Supplementation of Walnut Partially Reverses 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Induced Neurodegeneration in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease
- 335 Downloads
Numerous studies indicating that natural plant sources and their active phytochemicals offer protection to the pathological processes related to the development of neurogenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, the neuro protective efficacy of dietary supplementation of walnut (6 %) for 28 days was examined in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (i.p., 20 mg/kg body weight/day) for last four consecutive days. MPTP injection diminished the levels of GSH, dopamine and metabolites along with decreased activities of GPx and mitochondrial complex I. Further, the levels of TBARS and enzymatic antioxidants such as SOD and catalase, MAO-B activities were enhanced by MPTP treatment. Behavioral deficits and lowered TH expression are also proved MPTP induced neurotoxicity. Dietary supplementation of walnut attenuated MPTP-induced impairment in PD mice might be by its MAO-B inhibitory, antioxidant and mitochondrial protective actions. To find out the exact mechanism of action walnut on PD mice warrants further extensive studies.
KeywordsWalnut Parkinson’s disease Dopamine Antioxidants Oxidative stress
The project supported by an internal Grant (IG/AGR/FOOD/14/01) also highly acknowledged. The project was also supported by the Research Council; Oman (Grant No. RC/AGR/FOOD/11/01) is gratefully acknowledged.
Conflict of interest
All the authors declaring no conflict of interest.
- 6.Shimoda H, Tanaka J, Kikuchi M, Fukuda T, Ito H, Hatano T, Yoshida T (2008) Walnut polyphenols prevent liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride and d-galactosamine: hepatoprotective hydrolyzable tannins in the kernel pellicles of walnut. J Agric Food Chem 56:4444–4449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Gandev S (2007) Budding and grafting of the walnut (Juglans regia L.) and their effectiveness in Bulgaria. Bulg J Agric Sci 13:683–689Google Scholar
- 14.Braidy N, Subash S, Essa MM, Vaishnav R, Al-Adawi S, Al-Asmi A, Al-Senawi H, Alobaidy AAR, Lakhtakia R, Guillemin GJ (2013) Neuroprotective effects of a variety of pomegranate juice extracts (PJE) against MPTP-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human primary neurons. Oxid Med Cell Longev. doi: 10.1155/2013/685909 Google Scholar
- 15.Maraldi M, Vauzour D, Angeloni C (2014) Dietary polyphenols and their effects on cell biochemistry and pathophysiology. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014:576363. doi: 10.1155/2014/576363
- 17.Park G, Kim HG, Hong SP, Kim SY, Oh MS (2014) Walnuts (seeds of Juglandis sinensis L.) protect human epidermal keratinocytes against UVB-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through upregulation of ROS elimination pathways. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 27(3):132–140. doi: 10.1159/000354917 Epub 2014 Jan 11 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (1992) Standard methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives (1st Suppl. to 7th ed., Enlarged ed.). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (Methods 2201, 2205, 2432, 2301, 2302, 2324, and 2507)Google Scholar
- 22.Singleton VL, Rossi JA Jr (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic 16:144–158Google Scholar
- 28.Bhattacharya A, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK (2001) Antioxidant effect of Withania somnifera glycol withanolides in chronic foot-shock stress induced perturbations of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rat frontal cortex and striatum. J Ethnopharmacol 74:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.King TE, Howard RL (1967) Preparations and properties of soluble NADH dehydrogenases from cardiac muscle. Methods Enzymol 10:275–294Google Scholar
- 43.Ortiz GG, Pacheco-Moisés FP, Gómez-Rodríguez VM, González-Renovato ED, Torres-Sánchez ED, Ramírez-Anguiano AC (2013) Fish oil, melatonin and vitamin E attenuates midbrain cyclooxygenase-2 activity and oxidative stress after the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Metab Brain Dis 28:705–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.Bousquet M, Gibrat C, Saint-Pierre M, Julien C, Calon F, Cicchetti F (2009) Modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a potential neuroprotective mechanism of action of omega-3 fatty acids in a parkinsonian animal model. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33:1401–1408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar