Ephrin/Ephrin Receptor Expression in Ammonia-Treated Rat Astrocytes and in Human Cerebral Cortex in Hepatic Encephalopathy
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Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) represents a neuropsychiatric syndrome, which evolves as a consequence of a low grade cerebral edema and a concomitant oxidative/nitrosative stress response. Ephrin receptors (EphR) and their ligands (ephrins) regulate astrocytic glutamate uptake and gliotransmitter release thereby governing neurotransmission, but their role in HE and ammonia toxicity is unclear. We therefore tested effects of ammonia on expression levels of EphR/ephrin isoforms in cultured rat astrocytes and analysed underlying mechanisms. NH4Cl induced mRNA expression changes of several EphR/ephrin isoforms in a methionine sulfoximine-, NADPH oxidase- and NO synthase-dependent manner in cultured astrocytes. A prominent upregulation was noted for EphR A4 mRNA and protein in NH4Cl-treated astrocytes. NH4Cl-treatment decreased EphR A4 molecular mass to similar extent as found in astrocytes treated with the N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin. Knockdown of EphR A4 by siRNA, or treating astrocytes with NH4Cl or tunicamycin abolished fibroblast growth factor-induced and EphR A4-dependent astrocyte proliferation. NH4Cl-treatment also decreased GLAST mRNA levels in cultured astrocytes. This effect was sensitive to inhibitors of NAPDH oxidase or glutamine synthetase, but was insensitive to siRNA-mediated EphR A4 knockdown. Eph/ephrin gene expression changes were also found in post mortem brain samples of cirrhotic patients without or with HE compared to controls suggesting a potential in vivo relevance of the present findings. The present study suggests that ammonia modulates EphR/ephrin signaling in astrocytes and in the brain of cirrhotic patients with HE with potential implications for deranged neurotransmission in HE.
KeywordsHepatic encephalopathy Astrocytes Cell volume Glutamine Ephrin receptor
This study was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through Sonderforschungs-bereich SFB 974 “Communication and Systems Relevance in Liver Injury and Regeneration” (Düsseldorf). The authors are grateful for tissue support by the Australian Brain Donor Programs NSW Tissue Resource Centre, which is supported by the University of Sydney, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, Schizophrenia Research Institute, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and NSW Department of Health. We thank Miltenyi-Biotech for technical support and bioinformatic analysis. Expert technical assistance was provided by Torsten Janssen and Ursula Kristek.
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