Neurochemical Research

, Volume 37, Issue 7, pp 1465–1474 | Cite as

The Interactions of Nitric Oxide and Acetylcholine on Penicillin-Induced Epilepsy in Rats

  • Abdullah Hilmi Marangoz
  • Mehmet Yildirim
  • Mustafa Ayyildiz
  • Cafer Marangoz
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between nitric oxide (NO) and acetylcholine (ACh) in penicillin-induced experimental epilepsy. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 220 ± 35 g were used in the experiments. The epileptiform activity was induced by microinjection of penicillin (200 IU/1 μl) into the left sensorymotor cortex. Electrocorticogram was recorded by using Ag/AgCl ball electrodes. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, given intracortically 30 min after penicillin significantly reduced the spike frequency whereas ACh increased the epileptiform activity for 5 min. Atropine, an antagonist for muscarinic receptors, was given intracortically 30 min after penicillin and did not significantly affect epileptiform activity for 30 min. SNP given after atropine significantly suppressed the epileptiform activity. ACh given 10 min after Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, did not have a significant effect on spike frequency. When ACh and SNP were administered together, penicillin induced epileptiform activity and spike frequency were significantly suppressed from the 10th minute onwards. It can be concluded that ACh increases the penicillin-induced epileptiform activity while co-administration of ACh and SNP produces a potent anticonvulsant effect as compared to SNP alone.


Acetylcholine ECoG Epileptiform activity Nitric oxide Rat 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Mustafa Celik and Dr. Aydin Him for their help in proofreading the manuscript.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdullah Hilmi Marangoz
    • 1
  • Mehmet Yildirim
    • 2
  • Mustafa Ayyildiz
    • 3
  • Cafer Marangoz
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Ondokuz MayisSamsunTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, Faculty of MedicineKaradeniz Technical UniversityTrabzonTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Physiology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Ondokuz MayisSamsunTurkey

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