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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Fuzhisan, a Chinese Herbal Medicine, Inhibits Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity and Tau Phosphorylation Through Calpain/Cdk5 Pathway in Cultured Cortical Neurons

This article was retracted on 22 February 2012

Abstract

It has been shown that β-amyloid (Aβ) induced hyperphosphorylation of tau is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) activity is involved in the abnormal tau phosphorylation. The cleavage of neuron-specific Cdk5 activator, p35, to p25, mediated by calpain and calcium, deregulates Cdk5 activity and promotes neurodegeneration. Fuzhisan (FZS), a Chinese herbal complex prescription that has been used for the treatment of AD for over 15 years, is known to enhance the cognitive ability in AD patients. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects and potential molecular mechanisms of FZS against Aβ25–35-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neurons. We revealed that FZS attenuated Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. FZS inhibited Aβ25–35-induced activation of Cdk5 and decreased tau hyperphosphorylation although it did not directly inhibit Cdk5. In addition, FZS also blocked Aβ25–35-induced calcium influx, calpain activation and decreased cleavage of p35 to p25.

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Abbreviations

AD:

Alzheimer’s disease

Aβ:

β-amyloid

NFTs:

neurofibrillary tangles

GSK3β:

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta

Cdk5:

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5

FZS:

Fuzhisan

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30973106) and Natural Science Foundation of HeiLongJiang Province (No.CB08C309).

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Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Desheng Wang or Jiping Qi.

Additional information

This article has been retracted due to plagiarism.

Zhaoxu Zhang and Ruiping Zhao contributed equally to this work.

An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-012-0721-5.

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Zhang, Z., Zhao, R., Tang, Y. et al. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Fuzhisan, a Chinese Herbal Medicine, Inhibits Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity and Tau Phosphorylation Through Calpain/Cdk5 Pathway in Cultured Cortical Neurons. Neurochem Res 36, 801–811 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-011-0405-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-011-0405-6

Keywords

  • Fuzhisan (FZS)
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Tau
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5)
  • p35
  • p25