Advertisement

Neurochemical Research

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 407–413 | Cite as

Differential Effects of Undernourishment and Nutritional Rehabilitation on Serum Leptin Levels in Male and Female Rats

  • Helena Pinos
  • Esperanza Ortega
  • Beatriz Carrillo
  • Mari Ángeles Pérez-Izquierdo
  • Paloma Collado
Original Paper

Abstract

Leptin, a peptide hormone, is secreted by adipose tissue and is crucial to the regulation of feeding behaviour. The present study has shown that both male and female rats which have been undernourished since day six of gestation, show significantly decreased serum leptin levels on postnatal day 12; but when undernourishment continues into adulthood, only males continue to show decreased leptin levels. If nutritional rehabilitation is implemented early enough in males, serum leptin levels recover and nearly reach levels found in control adult males. Undernutrition also has a long term effect on body weight in both sexes, but nutritional rehabilitation leads to some degree of body weight recovery varying with sex and the age at which rehabilitation was implemented. Undernutrition seems to affect different developmental processes in males than in females, with males being more vulnerable than females in so far as long-term effects on serum leptin levels.

Keywords

Undernourishment Nutritional rehabilitation Leptin Body weight Sex differences Rat 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The present work was supported by DGICYT grant: BSO2003–2526 (PC). We are grateful to Mr. L. Troca, Mr. L. Carrillo, Mr. A. Marcos and Mr. G. Moreno for their technical assistance.

References

  1. 1.
    Ahima RS, Flier JS (2000) Leptin. Annu Rev Physiol 62:413–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahima RS, Osei YO (2004) Leptin signalling. Physiol Behav. 810:223–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bado A, Levasseur S, Attoub S et al (1998) The stomach is a source of leptin. Nature 394:790–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Masuzaki H, Ogawa Y, Sagawa N et al (1997) Nonadipose tissue production of leptin: leptin as a novel placenta-derived hormone in humans. Nat Med 3:1029–1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mise H, Sagawa N, Matsumoto T et al (1998) Augmented placental production of leptin in preeclampsia: possible involvement of placental hypoxia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 83:3225–3229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang J, Liu R, Hawkins M et al (1998) A nutrient-sensing pathway regulates leptin gene expression in muscle and fat. Nature 393:684–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Campfield LA, Smith FJ, Guisez Y et al (1995) Recombinant mouse OB protein: evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks. Science 269:546–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pelleymounter MA, Cullen MJ, Baker MB et al (1995) Effects of the obese gene producto on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice. Science 269:540–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ahima RS, Saper CB, Flier JS et al (2000) Leptin regulation of neuroendocrine systems. Front Neuroendocrinol. 21:263–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Steppan CM, Swick AG (1999) A role for leptin in brain development. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 256:600–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bouret SG, Simerly RB (2004) Minireview: leptin and development of hypothalamic feeding circuits. Endocrinology 145:2621–2626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bouret SG, Draper SJ, Simerly RB (2004) Trophic action of leptin on hypothalamic neurons that regulate feeding. Science 304:108–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barash IA, Cheung CC, Weigle DS et al (1996) Leptin is a metabolic signal to the reproductive system. Endocrinology 137:3144–3147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ahima RS, Prabakaran D, Flier JS (1998) Postnatal leptin surge and regulation of circadian rhythm of leptin by feeding. Implications for energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine function. J Clin Invest 101:1020–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smith JT, Waddell BJ (2003) Developmental changes in plasma leptin and hypothalamic leptin receptor ecpression in the rat: peripubertal changes and the emergence of sex differences. J Endocrinol 176:313–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saad MF, Damani S, Gingerich RL et al (1997) Sexual dimorphism in plasma leptin concentration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:579–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Teixeira C, Passos M, Ramos C et al (2002) Leptin serum concentration, food intake and body weight in rats whose mothers were exposed to malnutrition during lactation. J Nutr Biochem 8:493–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Passos MC, Vicente LL, Lisboa PC et al (2004) Absence of anorectic effect to acute peripheral leptin treatment in adult rats whose mothers were malnourished during lactation. Horm Metab Res 36:625–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pinos H, Collado P, Salas M et al (in press) Early undernutrition decreases the number of neurons in the locus coeruleus of rats. Nutrition NeurosciGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pinos H, Collado P, Salas M et al (2004) Undernutrition and food rehabilitation effects on the locus coeruleus in the rat. Neuroreport 15:1417–1420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Frederich RC, Hamman A, Anderson S et al (1995) Leptin levels reflect body lipid content in mice: evidence for diet-induced resistance to leptin action. Nat Med. 1:1311–1314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maffei MJ, Halaas J, Ravussin E et al (1995) Leptin levels in human and rodent: measurement of plasma leptin and ob mRNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects. Nat Med 1:1155–1161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Considine RV, Sinha MK, Heiman ML et al (1996) Serum immunoreactive leptin concentrations in normal weight and obese humans. N Engl J Med 334:292–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grimm V, Frieder B (1985) Differential vulnerability of male and female rats to the timing of various perinatal insults. Inter J Neurosc 27:155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rodríguez-Zafra M, de Blas MR, Pérez-Laso C et al (1993) Effects of perinatal Diazepam exposure on the sexually dimorphic rat locus coeruleus. Neurotoxicol Teratol 15:139–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pérez-Laso C, Valencia A, Rodríguez-Zafra M et al (1994) Perinatal administration of diazepam alters sexual dimorphism in the rat accessory olfactory bulb. Brain Res. 634:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Van Schaik CP, de Visser JA (1990) Fragile son or harassed daughters? Sex differences in mortality among juvenile primates. Folia Primatol 55:10–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sanes DH, Reh TA, Harris WA (2000) Development of the nervous system. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pinilla L, Seoane LM, Gonzalez L et al (1999) Regulation of serum leptin levels by gonadal function in rats. Eur J Endocrinol 140:468–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Santos AM, Ferraz MR, Teixeira CV et al (2004) Effects of undernutrition on serum and testicular testosterone levels and sexual function in adult rats. Horm Metab Res. 36:27–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helena Pinos
    • 1
  • Esperanza Ortega
    • 2
  • Beatriz Carrillo
    • 1
  • Mari Ángeles Pérez-Izquierdo
    • 1
  • Paloma Collado
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de PsicobiologíaUniversidad Nacional de Educación a DistanciaMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyFaculty of Medicine, University of GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations