, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 140–146 | Cite as

Two Methods of Modeling of Spinal Superreflexia in Rats



We studied the relations between conditions of induction and quantitative characteristics of abnormally amplified monosynaptic reflex discharges (MSD) in ventral roots (VR) observed in two experimental situations: (i) 5 days after simultaneously performed denervation (transection of the sciatic nerve) and spinalization at the L1 level, and (ii) 5 days after preliminary denervation and with systemic injection of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in the course of the acute experiment. In both situations, the amplitude of the MSD conducted via the VR was close to the threshold of excitation of fibers in this root or even exceeded this value (a superreflexia phenomenon). Under both (i) and (ii) conditions, we observed generation of the second component of MSD in the VR, which was probably related to transition of excitation from excited to “silent” fibers in the VR. The latter of the above variants of induction superreflexia (5 days after denervation and with the effect of 4-AP in the acute experiment) is preferred because there is practically no death of the experimental animals in the course of the chronic experiment, there are no negative post-spinalization changes in the spinal cord, and the possibility of supraspinal activation of motoneurons is preserved.


monosynaptic reflex discharges spinal cord denervation 4-aminopyridine chronic spinalization superreflexia 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    E. A. Makii and I. A. Krayushkina, “Peculiarities of spinal hyperreflexia after simultaneous combined transection of the sciatic nerve and chordotomy in rats,” Neurophysiology, 26, No.3, 165–169 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. A. Makii and I. A. Krayushkina, “On the possibility of ephaptic excitation of the ventral root fibers under conditions of extremely expressed spinal hyperreflexia,” Byull. Eksp. Biol. Med., No. 6, 581–583 (1995).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. A. Makii, P. F. Nerush, and A. G. Rodinskii, “Segmental reflex activity under conditions of superreflexia evoked by the action of substances increasing the activity of the spinal cord,” Neurophysiology, 32, No.2, 92–98 (2000).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Asada, W. Yasumo, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Evaluation of supraspinal involvement in spinal hyperactivity in rats with peripheral nerve section,” Neurosci. Res., Suppl., No. 9, 159 (1989).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. Miyata and H. Yasuda, “Enhancement of 1asynaptic transmission following muscle nerve section: dependence upon protein synthesis,” Neurosci. Res., 5, No.4, 338–346 (1988).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Navarette, “Early changes in motoneurons synaptic activation recorded in vitro following neonatal nerve injury in the rat,” J. Physiol., 438, 220 (1991).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    I. Ya. Serdyuchenko, P. M. Mantulo, and I. M. Karneta, “Effect of 4-aminopyridine on the recovery of segmental reflexes after transection of the sciatic nerve in rats,” Neirofiziologiya, 18, No.5, 702–705 (1986).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. A. Rogawski and J. L. Barker, “Effect s of 4-aminopyridine on calcium action potentials and calcium current under voltage clamp in spinal neurons,” Brain Res., 280, No.1, 180–185 (1983).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. A. Simmons and N. J. Dun, “Actions of 4-aminopyridine on mammalian ganglion cells,” Brai n Res., 289, No.1, 149–153 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Aldskogius, J. Arvidsson, and G. Grant, “The reaction of primary sensory neurons to peripheral nerve injury with particular emphasis on transganglionic changes,” Brain Res. Rev., 10, No.1, 27–46 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    B. Csillik, “Transganglionic regulation of the primary sensory neuron,” Acta Physiol. Hung., 69, Nos.3/4, 355–361 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. A. Makii and A. G. Rodinskii, “Evoked activity in the nerve trunks of the rat: modifications under the influence of 4-ami nopyridine,” Neurophysiology, 35, No.5, 371–377 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Jasser and A. Smith, “Effects of axotomy on sodium currents in bull frog sympathetic neuron,” Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 70, No.5, A355–XXI (1992).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. J. Pinter and N. Vanden, “Effect s of preventing reinnervation on axotomized motoneurons in the cat, ” J. Neurophysiol., 62, No.2, 311–324 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. A. Makii and A. G. Rodinskii, “Structural/functional basis of a superreflexia phenomenon and abnormally increased responses in the rat spinal cord,” Arkh. Klin. Eksp. Med., 11, No.1, 81–85 (2002).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. S. Vorontsov, General Electrophysiology [in Russian], Medgiz, Moscow (1961).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. G. Goshgarian and L. Guth, “Demonstration of functionally ineffective synapses in the guinea pig spinal cord,” Exp. Neurol., 57, No.2, 613–621 (1977).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dnepropetrovsk State Medical AcademyMinistry of Public Health of UkraineUkraine

Personalised recommendations