, Volume 98, Issue 3, pp 433–448 | Cite as

El ex-hombre: masculinidad y exilio en la poesía de Juan José Domenchina

  • Iker González-Allende


This article analyzes the representation of masculinity in Juan José Domenchina’s poetry of exile. The article argues that, during his last 20 years of life in exile (1939–1959), Domenchina shows in his poetry a contradictory masculinity. On the one hand, he reaffirms normative masculinity by rejecting pompous demonstrations of suffering, describing himself as stoic, tough, strong-willed and independent, and praising nostalgically Castilian men’s hypermasculine behavior. On the other hand, Domenchina’s poetry also testifies to his feelings of emasculation, since he calls himself an “ex-man”, shows his masculine fragmentation with the figures of the doppelganger or shadow, identifies himself with a child, and uses images of broken wings and falls to express his powerlessness. Furthermore, the poet confesses his lack of sexual prowess through the symbol of the sunset and compares his current impotence with his past full of sexual adventures. Domenchina’s poetry displays the typical contradictions of masculinity: the ideal model of assertive masculinity versus the reality of a weak masculinity in exile.


Juan José Domenchina Masculinity Exile Spanish poetry 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alcalde, M. C. (2011). Masculinities in motion: Latino men and violence in Kentucky. Men and Masculinities, 14(4), 450–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andújar, M. (1978). El exilio y Madrid en la poesía de Juan José Domenchina. Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos, 331, 5–18.Google Scholar
  3. Bellver, C. G. (1975). Juan José Domenchina, poet of exile. MLN, 90, 252–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellver, C. G. (1979). El mundo poético de Juan José Domenchina. Madrid: Editora Nacional.Google Scholar
  5. Beneke, T. (1997). Proving manhood: Reflections on men and sexism. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bravo Moreno, A. (2006). Migration, gender and national identity: Spanish migrant women in London. Oxford: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  7. Domenchina, J. J. (Ed.). (1947). Antología de la poesía española contemporánea (1900–1936). 3ª edición. México: Unión Tipográfica Editorial Hispano-Americana.Google Scholar
  8. Domenchina, J. J. (1995). Obra poética. Ed. Amelia de Paz. Vol. 2. Madrid: Castalia.Google Scholar
  9. Donato, K. M., et al. (2006). A glass half full? Gender in migration studies. International Migration Review, 40(1), 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Espín, O. M. (1999). Women crossing boundaries: A psychology of immigration and transformations of sexuality. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Gilmore, D. D. (1990). Manhood in the making: Cultural concepts of masculinity. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Guasch Andreu, O. (2003). Ancianos, guerreros, efebos y afeminados: tipos ideales de masculinidad. En J. M. Valcuende del Río y J. Blanco López (Eds.), Hombres: la construcción cultural de las masculinidades (pp. 113–24). Madrid: Talasa.Google Scholar
  13. Hibbins, R., & Pease, B. (2009). Men and masculinities on the move. In M. Donaldson, R. Hibbins, R. Howson, & B. Pease (Eds.), Migrant men: Critical studies of masculinities and the migration experience (pp. 1–19). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Jaji, R. (2009). Masculinity on unstable ground: Young refugee men in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Refugee Studies, 22(2), 177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kimmel, M. S. (1994). Masculinity as homophobia: Fear, shame, and silence in the construction of gender identity. In H. Brod, & M. Kaufman (Ed.), Theorizing masculinities (pp. 119–141). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ladeira, A. (2005). “Pouca Sorte com Barbeiros”: Masculinity and exile in José Rodrigues Miguéis. Hispania, 88(4), 739–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Luis, L. de. (1959). En la muerte de Juan José Domenchina. Poesía Española, 84, 14–15.Google Scholar
  18. Manalansan, M. (2006). Queer intersections: Sexuality and gender in migration studies. International Migration Review, 40(1), 224–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Martínez, M. C. (2009). “Her body was my country”: Gender and Cuban-American exile-community nationalist identity in the work of Gustavo Pérez Firmat. Latino Studies, 7(3), 295–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Parrado, E. A., & Flippen, C. A. (2005). Migration and gender among Mexican women. American Sociological Review, 70, 606–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Paz, Amelia de (1995). Introducción. In J. J. Domenchina, Obra poética (Vol. 1, pp.␣15–67). Madrid: Castalia.Google Scholar
  22. Smith, R. (2006). Mexican New York: Transnational lives of new immigrants. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  23. Ugarte, M. (1989). Shifting ground: Spanish civil war exile literature. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Warner, R. (1982). The non-life style of an exile: The poetics of Juan José Domenchina. Hispanófila, 26(76), 53–63.Google Scholar
  25. Zardoya, C. (1950). Juan José Domenchina, poeta de la sombra. Revista Hispánica Moderna, 16, 123–129.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Modern Languages and LiteraturesUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations