Radiographic patterns of progression with associated outcomes after bevacizumab therapy in glioblastoma patients
Treatment response and survival after bevacizumab failure remains poor in patients with glioblastoma. Several recent publications examining glioblastoma patients treated with bevacizumab have described specific radiographic patterns of disease progression as correlating with outcome. This study aims to scrutinize these previously reported radiographic prognostic models in an independent data set to inspect their reproducibility and potential for clinical utility. Sixty four patients treated at MD Anderson matched predetermined inclusion criteria. Patients were categorized based on previously published data by: (1) Nowosielski et al. into: T2-diffuse, cT1 Flare-up, non-responders and T2 circumscribed groups (2) Modified Pope et al. criteria into: local, diffuse and distant groups and (3) Bahr et al. into groups with or without new diffusion-restricted and/or pre-contrast T1-hyperintense lesions. When classified according to Nowosielski et al. criteria, the cT1 Flare-up group had the longest overall survival (OS) from bevacizumab initiation, with non-responders having the worst outcomes. The T2 diffuse group had the longest progression free survival (PFS) from start of bevacizumab. When classified by modified Pope at al. criteria, most patients did not experience a shift in tumor pattern from the pattern at baseline, while the PFS and OS in patients with local-to-local and local-to-diffuse/distant patterns of progression were similar. Patients developing restricted diffusion on bevacizumab had worse OS. Diffuse patterns of progression in patients treated with bevacizumab are rare and not associated with worse outcomes compared to other radiographic subgroups. Emergence of restricted diffusion during bevacizumab treatment was a radiographic marker of worse OS.
KeywordsBevacizumab Glioblastoma MRI Patterns of progression
This work was supported in part by the Sheikh Khalifa Al Nahyan Ben Zayed Institute for Personalized Cancer Therapy, and the MD Anderson Cancer Center Support Grant (P30 CA016672).
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Conflict of interest
Dr. JF DeGroot receives grant or research support from Sanofi-Aventis, Astrazeneca, EMD-Serano, Eli Lilly, Novartis and Deciphers Pharmaceuticals. He is a paid consultant for Celldex and Deciphera Pharmaceuticals. He is also on the DSMB for VBL Therapeutics and on the advisory board for Genentech, Novartis, Celldex and Foundation Medicine, Inc. Dr Cachia, Elshafeey, Kamiya-Matsuoka, Hatami, Mandel and Colen report no disclosures. Ms Alfaro-Munoz reports no disclosures.
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