Journal of Neuro-Oncology

, 105:9 | Cite as

Modern management of rare brain metastases in adults

  • Matthias J. Krammer
  • Andre Tomasino
  • David B. Schul
  • Sabrina T. Astner
  • Michael P. Meier
  • Christianto B. Lumenta
Topic Review


Brain metastases (BM) represent the main cause of intracranial neoplasms in adults, while being relatively less common in children. Today, better treatment options of the primary malignancy lead to higher remission rates as well as prolonged stable clinical conditions. This may in part explain the increased incidence of BM. Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with malignancies deteriorate significantly in cases of metastatic involvement of the central nervous system. Nowadays, especially modern management using surgical, medical, and radiotherapeutic options for treatment of BM tends to improve survival rates and enhance quality of life. Nonetheless, almost all treatment options are considered as palliative. In this review, we outline current knowledge of the incidence, diagnostic facilities, and therapeutic management of rare BM, with consideration of the basic aspects of the primary malignancy.


Brain metastasis Rare Management Surgery Radiosurgery 





1-(4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)-methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride


Brain metastases


Central nervous system


Computer tomography




Cancer of unknown primary


Esophageal carcinoma


Endometrial cancer


Epithelial ovarian cancer


Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d’Obstétrique


Gastric cancer


Gastrointestinal tumor


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Karnofsky performance status


Magnetic resonance imaging




Prostate carcinoma


Prostate-specific antigen


Parathyroid carcinoma


Radioactive iodine


Recursive partitioning analysis




Thyroid carcinoma


Whole-brain radiotherapy


World Health Organization



The authors disclose the receipt of anything of value from a commercial entity or other party that directly affects the content of this manuscript. None of the authors have any financial interest in the methodology being advanced with the publication of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthias J. Krammer
    • 1
  • Andre Tomasino
    • 1
  • David B. Schul
    • 1
  • Sabrina T. Astner
    • 2
  • Michael P. Meier
    • 1
  • Christianto B. Lumenta
    • 1
  1. 1.Academic Teaching Hospital Munich Bogenhausen, Department of Neurological SurgeryTechnical University of MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Klinikum rechts der IsarTechnical University MunichMunichGermany

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