Journal of Neuro-Oncology

, Volume 101, Issue 1, pp 57–66 | Cite as

Effect of CYP3A-inducing anti-epileptics on sorafenib exposure: results of a phase II study of sorafenib plus daily temozolomide in adults with recurrent glioblastoma

  • David A. Reardon
  • James J. Vredenburgh
  • Annick Desjardins
  • Katherine Peters
  • Sridharan Gururangan
  • John H. Sampson
  • Jennifer Marcello
  • James E. HerndonII
  • Roger E. McLendon
  • Dorothea Janney
  • Allan H. Friedman
  • Darell D. Bigner
  • Henry S. Friedman
Clinical Study – Patient Study


Sorafenib, an oral VEGFR-2, Raf, PDGFR, c-KIT and Flt-3 inhibitor, is active against renal cell and hepatocellular carcinomas, and has recently demonstrated promising activity for lung and breast cancers. In addition, various protracted temozolomide dosing schedules have been evaluated as a strategy to further enhance its anti-tumor activity. We reasoned that sorafenib and protracted, daily temozolomide may provide complementary therapeutic benefit, and therefore performed a phase 2 trial among recurrent glioblastoma patients. Adult glioblastoma patients at any recurrence after standard temozolomide chemoradiotherapy received sorafenib (400 mg twice daily) and continuous daily temozolomide (50 mg/m2/day). Assessments were performed every eight weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6) and secondary end points were radiographic response, overall survival (OS), safety and sorafenib pharmacokinetics. Of 32 enrolled patients, 12 (38%) were on CYP3-A inducing anti-epileptics (EIAEDs), 17 (53%) had 2 or more prior progressions, 15 had progressed while receiving 5-day temozolomide, and 12 (38%) had failed either prior bevacizumab or VEGFR inhibitor therapy. The most common grade ≥ 3 toxicities were palmer-planter erythrodysesthesia (19%) and elevated amylase/lipase (13%). Sorafenib pharmacokinetic exposures were comparable on day 1 regardless of EIAED status, but significantly lower on day 28 for patients on EIAEDs (P = 0.0431). With a median follow-up of 93 weeks, PFS-6 was 9.4%. Only one patient (3%) achieved a partial response. In conclusion, sorafenib can be safely administered with daily temozolomide, but this regimen has limited activity for recurrent GBM. Co-administration of EIAEDs can lower sorafenib exposures in this population.


Sorafenib Temozolomide Glioblastoma Raf VEGF 



Complete response


Enzyme-inducing antieptileptic drugs


Glioblastoma multiforme


Intent-to treat


Karnofsky performance status


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Overall survival


Progressive disease


Progression-free survival


Partial response


Stable disease


Vascular endothelial growth factor


Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor



This work was supported by NIH Grants NS20023 and CA11898; NIH Grant MO1 RR 30, GCRC Program, NCRR; and NCI SPORE 1 P20 CA096890.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Reardon
    • 1
    • 3
    • 7
  • James J. Vredenburgh
    • 4
  • Annick Desjardins
    • 2
  • Katherine Peters
    • 2
  • Sridharan Gururangan
    • 1
    • 3
  • John H. Sampson
    • 1
  • Jennifer Marcello
    • 5
  • James E. HerndonII
    • 5
  • Roger E. McLendon
    • 6
  • Dorothea Janney
    • 1
  • Allan H. Friedman
    • 1
  • Darell D. Bigner
    • 6
  • Henry S. Friedman
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  5. 5.Department of Cancer Center BiostatisticsDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  6. 6.Department of PathologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  7. 7.The Brain Tumor Center at DukeDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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