New Forests

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 457–469 | Cite as

Can market-based agroforestry germplasm supply systems meet the needs of forest landscape restoration?

  • Jonathan P. Cornelius
  • Andrew Miccolis


By late 2017, governments had pledged more than 140 M ha to the global forest landscape restoration (FLR) agenda. Although much FLR will consist of conventional ecological restoration, a substantial proportion will involve agroforestry. The question therefore arises of how the agroforestry germplasm needs of FLR can be met, particularly given its emphasis on species diversity. This paper examines the role of market-based germplasm supply systems. A simple analytic framework is presented, and key demand- and supply-related factors are described. It is suggested that seedling supply and demand at market prices will not necessarily coincide with needs of all farmers nor with the requirements of a particular restoration program, and that market-based germplasm supply systems will therefore often not meet the needs of restoration programs. Implications of these findings are then identified and appropriate responses are suggested. These include those intended to produce shifts in demand or supply curves through addressing the underlying enabling environment, and direct subsidies to tree planting stock prices.


Tree seedling demand Reforestation Land rehabilitation Private nurseries Subsidized plant distribution 



We gratefully acknowledge the support of CGIAR Fund Donors to the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA), under which the research reported here was carried out. A full list of CGIAR Fund Donors is available at We also gratefully acknowledge the support of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) under the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID) KNOWFOR partnership. We also thank Steve Franzel (ICRAF), Jens-Peter Lillesø (University of Copenhagen), James Roshetko (ICRAF), and two anonymous reviewers; their perceptive reviews greatly improved the final version.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Regional Office for Latin AmericaWorld Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)Lima 12Peru
  2. 2.College of Science and EngineeringJames Cook UniversityCairnsAustralia
  3. 3.Brazil Country OfficeWorld Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)BrasíliaBrazil

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